[Al-Quran 50:6-8] Have they not looked at the heaven above them - how We structured it and adorned it and how it has no rifts? And the earth - We spread it out and cast therein firmly set mountains and made grow therein [something] of every beautiful kind, Giving insight and a reminder for every servant who turns [to Allah].

Wednesday, January 10, 2018

Muhammad – Ascension & Return

… Not (is) the command but for Allah. He has commanded that not you worship but Him Alone … [Quran 12:40] 

The belief in the ascension and return of Muhammad as an extension of the belief in Adam’s descent, Jesus’ ascent and Moses’ conversation with God.    

Full Text
Many Muslims believe that Muhammad physically ascended to meet Allah and returned within the same night. Muslims also believe that Adam was sent from The Garden to Earth. They also believe that Jesus was raised alive and is yet to return. Jews, Christians and Muslims also believe that God spoke with Moses. It is also believed that when the time comes, the Believers who have been forgiven will be able to leave Earth and ascend to inherit The Gardens, as an ever-lasting reward by Allah the Most-Compassionate, the Ever-Merciful, the Most-Appreciative!     

The ascension of Muhammad is mentioned in the very first ayat of Surah al-Isra:

سُبْحَانَ الَّذِي أَسْرَىٰ بِعَبْدِهِ لَيْلًا مِّنَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ إِلَى الْمَسْجِدِ الْأَقْصَى الَّذِي بَارَكْنَا حَوْلَهُ لِنُرِيَهُ مِنْ آيَاتِنَا إِنَّهُ هُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْبَصِيرُ
Glory to (God) Who did take His servant for a Journey by night from the Sacred Mosque to the farthest Mosque, whose precincts We did bless,- in order that We might show him some of Our Signs: for He is the One Who heareth and seeth (all things ).
[Al-Quran 17:1, Translation: Yusuf Ali]

Physical Journey  
As can be seen in the usage of the word across The Quran, the word is used to mean to go from one place to another:

Screenshot from corpus.quran.com

The Prophet’s journey was a physical journey, not an OBE (out-of-the-body) experience, simply because both The Bible and The Quran state that the human is made of dust. The human is essentially the dust he/she is made of, as explored in another post Human: Body or Soul?  Therefore, it must be a physical journey that involved transportation of the body from The Sacred Mosque to The Farthest Mosque.

Farthest Mosque 
The Quran describes the Earth as situated within the innermost layer of the seven concentric skies/heavens, and the Throne of God above it. Therefore the farthest mosque from Earth must be at or very near The Mighty Throne, possibly Bait-ul-Mamoor whose oath has been taken in Q52:4.  

A common misconception is that alMasjid alAqsa in Q17:1 refers to the mosque in Jerusalem. The subsequent ayaat of the same surah clarify that the Temple of Solomon had already been completely destroyed and didn’t exist then. Masjid alAqsa is supposed to have been built by Caliph Umar during his caliphate. There was no Masjid alAqsa in Jerusalem, at the time of Prophet Muhammad’s ascension.

Show Signs
Q17:1 states that the reason for the Ascension was to show signs. Then, we read in Q17:60:

وَمَا مَنَعَنَا أَن نُّرْسِلَ بِالْآيَاتِ إِلَّا أَن كَذَّبَ بِهَا الْأَوَّلُونَ وَآتَيْنَا ثَمُودَ النَّاقَةَ مُبْصِرَةً فَظَلَمُوا بِهَا 
وَمَا نُرْسِلُ بِالْآيَاتِ إِلَّا تَخْوِيفًا
وَإِذْ قُلْنَا لَكَ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ أَحَاطَ بِالنَّاسِ وَمَا جَعَلْنَا الرُّؤْيَا الَّتِي أَرَيْنَاكَ إِلَّا فِتْنَةً لِّلنَّاسِ وَالشَّجَرَةَ الْمَلْعُونَةَ فِي الْقُرْآنِ
وَنُخَوِّفُهُمْ فَمَا يَزِيدُهُمْ إِلَّا طُغْيَانًا كَبِيرًا
And not stopped Us that We send the Signs except that denied them the former (people) And We gave Thamud the she-camel (as) a visible sign, but they wronged her.
And not We send the Signs except (as) a warning.
And when We said to you, "Indeed, your Lord has encompassed the mankind." And not We made the vision which We showed you except (as) a trial for mankind, and the tree the accursed in the Quran.
And We threaten them but not it increases them except (in) transgression great.
[Al-Quran 17:59 - 60]

Curiously, another term used in Q17:60 is what is translated as vision or dream. The words translated as show and vision in Q17:1 and Q17:60 share the same root in Arabic. The following screenshots give an idea their usage in some other ayaat of The Quran as well:    


Screenshots from corpus.quran.com

Interestingly, a similar combination of seeing and vision is there is Surah Yusuf (Q12:4,5; Q12:100). Moreover, Q12:6 quotes Prophet Jacob stating that God will teach Joseph (Yusuf) the interpretation of ‘ahadith’ (narratives/statements). The Quran also uses the same word for itself:

  وَكَذَٰلِكَ يَجْتَبِيكَ رَبُّكَ وَيُعَلِّمُكَ مِن تَأْوِيلِ الْأَحَادِيثِ وَيُتِمُّ نِعْمَتَهُ عَلَيْكَ وَعَلَىٰ آلِ يَعْقُوبَ كَمَا أَتَمَّهَا عَلَىٰ أَبَوَيْكَ مِن قَبْلُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْحَاقَ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ
And thus will choose you your Lord and will teach you of (the) interpretation (of) the narratives and complete His Favor on you and on (the) family (of) Yaqub as He completed it on your two forefathers before - Ibrahim and Ishaq. Indeed, your Lord (is) All-Knower, All-Wise."  
[Al-Quran 12:6]

  لَقَدْ كَانَ فِي قَصَصِهِمْ عِبْرَةٌ لِّأُولِي الْأَلْبَابِ مَا كَانَ حَدِيثًا يُفْتَرَىٰ وَلَٰكِن تَصْدِيقَ الَّذِي بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ وَتَفْصِيلَ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ وَهُدًى وَرَحْمَةً لِّقَوْمٍ يُؤْمِنُونَ
Verily, (there) is in their stories a lesson for men (of) understanding. Not (it) is a narration invented, but a confirmation (of that) which (was) before it and a detailed explanation (of) all things, and a guidance and mercy for a people who believe.   
[Al-Quran 12:111]

  تِلْكَ آيَاتُ اللَّهِ نَتْلُوهَا عَلَيْكَ بِالْحَقِّ فَبِأَيِّ حَدِيثٍ بَعْدَ اللَّهِ وَآيَاتِهِ يُؤْمِنُونَ
These (are the) Verses, (of) Allah We recite them to you in truth. Then in what statement after Allah and His Verses will they believe? 
[Al-Quran 45:6]

  فَبِأَيِّ حَدِيثٍ بَعْدَهُ يُؤْمِنُونَ
Then in what statement after it will they believe? 
[Al-Quran 77:50]

From the little scientists know about dreams, an on-going subject of research and discovery, the brain and the senses are actively involved in dreaming. In some cases, even the body is actively engaged in the dream. Electrical activity in the brain is being mapped. Different brain waves have been measured, correlating with different states. Of special relevance to this study may be the Gamma waves.   

As discussed under Physical Journey above, we learn from The Quran that the human is created from dust, so the involvement of the body is essential for any physical travel.

The Quran informs us of past and future events as dire warnings as well as glad tidings. So, perhaps, for a living person, to be taken on a physical journey to experience the otherwise unseen reality, as well be shown future (and/or past) events, as in a dream, is a combination of both the mind and body phenomena. For Muhammad as the Messenger and the Prophet, the journey was probably experiential of the past, present and future.  Allah knows best! 

Q17:60 links that which was shown to Muhammad and the cursed tree mentioned in the Quran, explaining that both were intended as a trial for mankind!

Our story on Earth begins with Adam’s descent after he was tried with the tree in The Garden. The Quran details the consequence of the disobedience: Adam and his wife lost their natural clothing, with the evidence in our genomes. We humans have gone from being created excellently to having very lowly, imperfect bodies, yet sporting the most complex brains on the planet. The descendants of Adam have indeed been honoured above many creatures, in many ways, and our transportation is of particular significance:

 وَلَقَدْ كَرَّمْنَا بَنِي آدَمَ وَحَمَلْنَاهُمْ فِي الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ وَرَزَقْنَاهُم مِّنَ الطَّيِّبَاتِ وَفَضَّلْنَاهُمْ عَلَىٰ كَثِيرٍ مِّمَّنْ خَلَقْنَا تَفْضِيلًا
And certainly, We have honored (the) children of Adam and We carried them on the land and the sea, and We have provided them of the good things and We preferred them over many of those whom We have created (with) preference.
[Al-Quran 17:70]
Satan is the enemy. The Quran warns of the origin and objective of Satan’s enmity to Adam and his descendants. The Quran also informs us of the similarity in the creation of Adam and Jesus:

إِنَّ مَثَلَ عِيسَىٰ عِندَ اللَّهِ كَمَثَلِ آدَمَ خَلَقَهُ مِن تُرَابٍ ثُمَّ قَالَ لَهُ كُن فَيَكُونُ
Indeed, (the) likeness (of) Isa near Allah (is) like (the) likeness (of) Adam. He created him from dust then He said to him, "Be," and he was. 
[Al-Quran 3:59]

Iblis led Adam to be expelled from The Garden to Earth. Jesus was raised up from the Earth. At the end of our allotted time, when the Anti-Christ is supposed to be leading multitude of descendants of Adam astray, Jesus is expected to return to help rescue the Believers

Thus a prerequisite to the belief in Muhammad’s ascension, and return, is the belief in Adam’s coming to Earth, Jesus being raised alive, and God speaking with Moses. All these are matters of faith as, as far as I know, there were no human witnesses who saw Moses talking with God, or witnessed Jesus’ ascension or Adam’s descent or Muhammad’s ascension and return. Their companions took these events on faith. Of course, Jesus’ companions did ask for proof: the Table from Heaven, and it was sent down (Q5:110-115). God also showed many clear signs through Moses and Jesus, yet those who were not to belief rejected it all.   


وَلَقَدْ صَرَّفْنَا لِلنَّاسِ فِي هَٰذَا الْقُرْآنِ مِن كُلِّ مَثَلٍ فَأَبَىٰ أَكْثَرُ النَّاسِ إِلَّا كُفُورًا
وَقَالُوا لَن نُّؤْمِنَ لَكَ حَتَّىٰ تَفْجُرَ لَنَا مِنَ الْأَرْضِ يَنبُوعًا
أَوْ تَكُونَ لَكَ جَنَّةٌ مِّن نَّخِيلٍ وَعِنَبٍ فَتُفَجِّرَ الْأَنْهَارَ خِلَالَهَا تَفْجِيرًا
أَوْ تُسْقِطَ السَّمَاءَ كَمَا زَعَمْتَ عَلَيْنَا كِسَفًا أَوْ تَأْتِيَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْمَلَائِكَةِ قَبِيلًا
أَوْ يَكُونَ لَكَ بَيْتٌ مِّن زُخْرُفٍ أَوْ تَرْقَىٰ فِي السَّمَاءِ وَلَن نُّؤْمِنَ لِرُقِيِّكَ حَتَّىٰ تُنَزِّلَ عَلَيْنَا كِتَابًا نَّقْرَؤُهُ 
قُلْ سُبْحَانَ رَبِّي هَلْ كُنتُ إِلَّا بَشَرًا رَّسُولًا
And verily We have explained to mankind in this Quran from every example, but refused most (of) the mankind except disbelief. And they say, "Never we will believe in you until you cause to for us from the earth a spring. Or you have for you a garden of date-palms and grapes, and cause to the rivers within them abundantly. Or you cause to fall the sky, as you have claimed, upon us (in) pieces or you bring Allah and the Angels before (us). Or is for you a house of ornament or you ascend into the sky. And never we will believe in your ascension until you bring down to us a book we could read it."
Say, "Glorified (is) my Lord! "What am I but a human, a Messenger."
[Al-Quran 17:89-93]
The triliteral root rā qāf yā (ر ق ي) occurs in the Quran as follows:

Screenshot from corpus.quran.com

وَمَا مَنَعَ النَّاسَ أَن يُؤْمِنُوا إِذْ جَاءَهُمُ الْهُدَىٰ إِلَّا أَن قَالُوا أَبَعَثَ اللَّهُ بَشَرًا رَّسُولًا
قُل لَّوْ كَانَ فِي الْأَرْضِ مَلَائِكَةٌ يَمْشُونَ مُطْمَئِنِّينَ لَنَزَّلْنَا عَلَيْهِم مِّنَ السَّمَاءِ مَلَكًا رَّسُولًا
قُلْ كَفَىٰ بِاللَّهِ شَهِيدًا بَيْنِي وَبَيْنَكُمْ إِنَّهُ كَانَ بِعِبَادِهِ خَبِيرًا بَصِيرًا
And what prevented the people that they believe when came to them the guidance except that they said, "Has Allah sent a human Messenger?"
Say, "If (there) were in the earth Angels walking securely, surely We (would) have sent down to them from the heaven an Angel (as) a Messenger."
Say, "Sufficient is Allah (as) a witness between me and between you. Indeed, He is of His slaves All-Aware, All-Seer."
[Al-Quran 17:94-96]

The Unseen
In Q17:85 the question about the RUH is briefly addressed.  Before and after Q17:93, which mentions the people’s disbelief in Muhammad’s ascension, Allah’s command, angels, belief in the unseen are mentioned – wondrous concepts, yet made easy to trust for the believing heart.

Instantaneous Transportation
Q27:40 mentions the instantaneous transportation of an object from one country to another by a person who had been given knowledge from the The Book.  As Q13:39 informs us that with Allah is the Mother of the Book. For someone who authors and controls the software of all creation, nothing is impossible for Him!

In this era of science and technology, when there are theories about the multiverse, theories about quantum teleportation, when interstellar travel no longer seems like an improbable dream, when there is active search for a hospitable planet to migrate to; it is far easier to believe that the Creator of Everything can and did transport Adam, Jesus and Muhammad.

Travel to Meet God

مِّنَ اللَّهِ ذِي الْمَعَارِجِ
From Allah, Owner (of) the ways of ascent.
[Al-Quran 70:3]

Adam descended and Jesus ascended. Muhammad ascended and descended. The Quran is silent on the details of these travels, such as vehicle, time taken, route, etc. All three travels happened as per the Will and Command of Allah. However, when Pharaoh attempted to reach God:  

وَقَالَ فِرْعَوْنُ يَا أَيُّهَا الْمَلَأُ مَا عَلِمْتُ لَكُم مِّنْ إِلَٰهٍ غَيْرِي فَأَوْقِدْ لِي يَا هَامَانُ عَلَى الطِّينِ فَاجْعَل لِّي صَرْحًا لَّعَلِّي أَطَّلِعُ إِلَىٰ إِلَٰهِ مُوسَىٰ وَإِنِّي لَأَظُنُّهُ مِنَ الْكَاذِبِينَ
And Firaun said, "O chiefs! Not I know for you any god other than me. So kindle for me O Haman! Upon the clay and make, for me a lofty tower so that [I] I may look at (the) God (of) Musa. And indeed, I [I] think that he (is) of the liars."
[Al-Quran 28:38]

وَقَالَ فِرْعَوْنُ يَا هَامَانُ ابْنِ لِي صَرْحًا لَّعَلِّي أَبْلُغُ الْأَسْبَابَ
أَسْبَابَ السَّمَاوَاتِ فَأَطَّلِعَ إِلَىٰ إِلَٰهِ مُوسَىٰ وَإِنِّي لَأَظُنُّهُ كَاذِبًا وَكَذَٰلِكَ زُيِّنَ لِفِرْعَوْنَ سُوءُ عَمَلِهِ وَصُدَّ عَنِ السَّبِيلِ 
وَمَا كَيْدُ فِرْعَوْنَ إِلَّا فِي تَبَابٍ
And said Firaun, "O Haman! Construct for me a tower that I may reach the ways
(The) ways (to) the heavens so I may look at (the) God (of) Musa; and indeed, I [I] surely think him (to be) a liar." And thus was made fair-seeming to Firaun (the) evil (of) his deed, and he was averted from the way.
And not (was the) plot (of) Firaun except in ruin.
[Al-Quran 40:36 - 37]

Much as we desire to escape and ascend to The Gardens, we will not be able to do so until Allah permits it:

يَا مَعْشَرَ الْجِنِّ وَالْإِنسِ إِنِ اسْتَطَعْتُمْ أَن تَنفُذُوا مِنْ أَقْطَارِ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ فَانفُذُوا 
لَا تَنفُذُونَ إِلَّا بِسُلْطَانٍ
O assembly (of) the jinn and the men! If you are able to pass beyond [of] (the) regions (of) the heavens and the earth, then pass.
Not you (can) pass except by authority.
[Al-Quran 55:33]

To eventually leave this planet and ascend again, we need to earn Allah’s forgiveness, as detailed in the scriptures:

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ وَأَخْبَتُوا إِلَىٰ رَبِّهِمْ أُولَٰئِكَ أَصْحَابُ الْجَنَّةِ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ
Indeed, those who believe and do good deeds and humble themselves before their Lord, those (are the) companions (of) Paradise, they in it (will) abide forever.
[Al-Quran 11:23]

يَوْمَ تَرَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَاتِ يَسْعَىٰ نُورُهُم بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَبِأَيْمَانِهِم بُشْرَاكُمُ الْيَوْمَ جَنَّاتٌ تَجْرِي مِن تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا ذَٰلِكَ هُوَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ
يَوْمَ يَقُولُ الْمُنَافِقُونَ وَالْمُنَافِقَاتُ لِلَّذِينَ آمَنُوا انظُرُونَا نَقْتَبِسْ مِن نُّورِكُمْ قِيلَ ارْجِعُوا وَرَاءَكُمْ فَالْتَمِسُوا نُورًا 
فَضُرِبَ بَيْنَهُم بِسُورٍ لَّهُ بَابٌ بَاطِنُهُ فِيهِ الرَّحْمَةُ وَظَاهِرُهُ مِن قِبَلِهِ الْعَذَابُ
(On the) Day you will see the believing men and the believing women, running, their light before them and on their right, "Glad tidings for you this Day - gardens flowing from underneath it the rivers, abiding forever therein. That [it] (is) the success the great."
(On the) Day will say the hypocrite men and the hypocrite women to those who believed, "Wait for us, we may acquire of your light." It will be said, "Go back behind you and seek light."
Then will be put up between them a wall, for it a gate its interior, in it (is) mercy but its exterior, facing towards [it] the punishment.
[Al-Quran 57:12-13]

References & Links

Aqsa Mosque means "Bait ul Mamoor" Which is the Farthest Mosque.

Dream States: A Peek into Consciousness https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/dream-states/

Gamma Waves, “Aha” Moments & Dreaming

EEG oscillations during sleep and dream recall: state- or trait-like individual differences?

How muscles are paralyzed during sleep: Finding may suggest new treatments for sleep disorders

REM Sleep Behavior Disorder

Is Lucid Dreaming Real?

Mission of the Messengers & Related Posts

Last updated on: January 12, 2018

Sunday, December 10, 2017

Humans: Extinct & Extant

Fossils & Ruins; Last Glacial Period & Global Warming 
No change should there be in the creation of Allah [Quran 30:30] 

The Earth has witnessed many generations of the genus Homo, most of whom are now extinct. Homo sapiens is the extant specie, which now dominates this planet.
The Earth has also experienced many glacial periods, as well as catastrophic events, wiping out entire populations, of whom the fossils and ruins remain.
Global warming is now pointing towards another major climate shift, which may mark the end of the Homo sapiens.
The Quran repeatedly warns us of a fixed hour, when everyone will die. More importantly, The Quran also informs us of a resurrection and warns of a reckoning that will follow it.

Full Text
عَمَّ يَتَسَاءَلُونَ
عَنِ النَّبَإِ الْعَظِيمِ
About what are they asking one another?
About the News the Great,
[Al-Quran 78:1-2]

أَلَمْ نُهْلِكِ الْأَوَّلِينَ 
ثُمَّ نُتْبِعُهُمُ الْآخِرِينَ
Did not We destroy the former (people)?
Then We follow them up (with) the later ones.
[Al-Quran 77:16-17]

The Quran uses very definitive and precise terms, for example: al-Insaan, an-Nas, Adam and bani Adam. Many religious people believe Adam to be the first human, yet neither The Bible nor The Quran makes any such assertion.

The Bible presents two genesis stories:

The Quran also discusses the creation of humans and the creation of Adam, independent of each other:
Humans: Q4:1, Q6:98, Q7:189, Q32:7, …  

Each story needs to be studied carefully, so that we are able to understand its importance and its significance to our past, present and future.

The bani Adam, the sons /progeny of Adam, are the descendants of the Adam mentioned in the Quran. According to scientists, almost all humans alive today can trace our descent/lineage from a common biological Adam, also known as the Most Recent Common Ancestor.  

وَرَبُّكَ الْغَنِيُّ ذُو الرَّحْمَةِ إِن يَشَأْ يُذْهِبْكُمْ وَيَسْتَخْلِفْ مِن بَعْدِكُم مَّا يَشَاءُ 
كَمَا أَنشَأَكُم مِّن ذُرِّيَّةِ قَوْمٍ آخَرِينَ
إِنَّ مَا تُوعَدُونَ لَآتٍ وَمَا أَنتُم بِمُعْجِزِينَ
And your Lord (is) the Self-Sufficient Owner of Mercy. If He wills He can take you away and grant succession after you (to) whom He wills. 
as He raised you from the descendants (of) other people.
Indeed, what you are promised (is) sure to come. And you (can) not escape (it).
[Al-Quran 6:133-134]

Many species of the genus homo are already extinct. When Moses was sent to Pharaoh, he asked Moses:

قَالَ فَمَا بَالُ الْقُرُونِ الْأُولَىٰ
He said, "Then what (is the) case (of) the generations (of) the former."
[Al-Quran 20:51]
Moses replied:

قَالَ عِلْمُهَا عِندَ رَبِّي فِي كِتَابٍ لَّا يَضِلُّ رَبِّي وَلَا يَنسَى
He said, "Its knowledge (is) with my Lord, in a Record. Not errs my Lord and not forgets."
[Al-Quran 20:52]  

When the Pharaoh and his people were drowned, al-Quran informs us that it was an exemplary punishment for the former (ancients) and the latter (modern):

فَأَخَذَهُ اللَّهُ نَكَالَ الْآخِرَةِ وَالْأُولَىٰ
So seized him Allah (with) an exemplary punishment (for) the last and the first.
[Al-Quran 79:25]

Most translators have taken الْآخِرَةِ and الْأُولَىٰ in the above ayat to mean Hereafter and this life; however usage of the nominal noun الْأُولَىٰ across the Quran, and the following ayaat make it clear that it’s a term describing the ancients: 

وَلَقَدْ آتَيْنَا مُوسَى الْكِتَابَ مِن بَعْدِ مَا أَهْلَكْنَا الْقُرُونَ الْأُولَىٰ بَصَائِرَ لِلنَّاسِ وَهُدًى وَرَحْمَةً لَّعَلَّهُمْ يَتَذَكَّرُونَ
After destroying the people of the ancient towns We gave the Book to Moses to be a source of knowledge, a guidance, and mercy for mankind so that perhaps they would take heed.
[Al-Quran 28:43, Translation: Muhammad Sarwar]

Thus, Moses’ era marks the transition from the ancient world to the modern. Moreover, Surah al-A`la also distinguishes between the ancient and the modern scriptures:

  إِنَّ هَٰذَا لَفِي الصُّحُفِ الْأُولَىٰ صُحُفِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَمُوسَىٰ
This is what is written in the ancient heavenly Books, the Scriptures of Abraham and Moses.
 [Al-Quran 87:18-19, Translation: Muhammad Sarwar] 

وَكَمْ أَهْلَكْنَا قَبْلَهُم مِّن قَرْنٍ هَلْ تُحِسُّ مِنْهُم مِّنْ أَحَدٍ أَوْ تَسْمَعُ لَهُمْ رِكْزًا
How many generations living before them did We destroy? Do you find anyone of them around or do you even hear any word from them?
 [Al-Quran 19:98, Translation: Muhammad Sarwar]

وَحَرَامٌ عَلَىٰ قَرْيَةٍ أَهْلَكْنَاهَا أَنَّهُمْ لَا يَرْجِعُونَ حَتَّىٰ إِذَا فُتِحَتْ يَأْجُوجُ وَمَأْجُوجُ وَهُم مِّن كُلِّ حَدَبٍ يَنسِلُونَ  
The people whom We destroyed can never return to this world until Gog and Magog are let loose to rush down from the hills.
 [Al-Quran 21:95-96 Translation: Muhammad Sarwar]

أَلَمْ يَرَوْا كَمْ أَهْلَكْنَا قَبْلَهُم مِّنَ الْقُرُونِ أَنَّهُمْ إِلَيْهِمْ لَا يَرْجِعُونَ
Have they not seen how many generations, living before them, had We destroyed and they cannot ever come back to them?
 [Al-Quran 36:31, Translation: Muhammad Sarwar]

Fossil Evidence
The Quran informs us of the ancients and how they are unable to return.
There are fossil evidences of many ancient species of the genus Homo who were different from us. Those extinct species of our genus are thought to have lived millions of years ago.

Another curiosity are the more recent elongated skulls discovered in many ancient ruins across the world. These are dated to have lived around a few thousand years ago. Though skulls can be deliberately deformed to a certain extent, yet there is growing evidence that many of those were naturally elongated skull-forms by birth. 

The Quran also informs us that they were mightier and greater in number and in impression upon the Earth. The ruins testify to their physical and mental strength. The elongated skull fossils have a larger brain-case, that imply a larger brain, which probably means enhanced mental abilities. The Quran endorses this view, informing us that we haven’t been given a tenth of what they had. It also speaks of the mighty stature of some, particularly about the Aad. There is some archeological evidence that once mighty giants may have trod upon the Earth.   

وَلَوْ تَرَىٰ إِذْ فَزِعُوا فَلَا فَوْتَ وَأُخِذُوا مِن مَّكَانٍ قَرِيبٍ
وَقَالُوا آمَنَّا بِهِ وَأَنَّىٰ لَهُمُ التَّنَاوُشُ مِن مَّكَانٍ بَعِيدٍ
وَقَدْ كَفَرُوا بِهِ مِن قَبْلُ وَيَقْذِفُونَ بِالْغَيْبِ مِن مَّكَانٍ بَعِيدٍ
 وَحِيلَ بَيْنَهُمْ وَبَيْنَ مَا يَشْتَهُونَ كَمَا فُعِلَ بِأَشْيَاعِهِم مِّن قَبْلُ إِنَّهُمْ كَانُوا فِي شَكٍّ مُّرِيبٍ  
And if you (could) see when they will be terrified but (there will be) no escape, and they will be seized from a place near. And they will say, "We believe in it." But how for them (will be) the receiving from a place far off? And certainly, they disbelieved in it before. And they utter conjectures about the unseen from a place far off.
 And a barrier will be placed between them and between what they desire, as was done with their kind before. Indeed, they were in doubt disquieting. 
 [Al-Quran 34:51-54

وَمَا أَمْرُنَا إِلَّا وَاحِدَةٌ كَلَمْحٍ بِالْبَصَرِ
 وَلَقَدْ أَهْلَكْنَا أَشْيَاعَكُمْ فَهَلْ مِن مُّدَّكِرٍ  
And not (is) Our Command but one, like the twinkling (of) the eye.
 And certainly We destroyed your kinds, so is (there) any who will receive admonition?

Each received Guidance

وَيَقُولُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا لَوْلَا أُنزِلَ عَلَيْهِ آيَةٌ مِّن رَّبِّهِ 
 إِنَّمَا أَنتَ مُنذِرٌ وَلِكُلِّ قَوْمٍ هَادٍ
And say those who disbelieved, "Why not has been sent down to him a sign from his Lord?" 
Only you (are) a warner, and for every people (is) a guide.
[Al-Quran 13:7]

According to the Quran, each extinct human civilization was destroyed when they wronged their NAFS and refused to repent, in spite of their messenger(s) guiding them with divinely inspired message. This further corroborates the theory that they were at an advanced level of technology. 

No change in the Sunnat of Allah

اسْتِكْبَارًا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَمَكْرَ السَّيِّئِ وَلَا يَحِيقُ الْمَكْرُ السَّيِّئُ إِلَّا بِأَهْلِهِ
  فَهَلْ يَنظُرُونَ إِلَّا سُنَّتَ الْأَوَّلِينَ  
فَلَن تَجِدَ لِسُنَّتِ اللَّهِ تَبْدِيلًا وَلَن تَجِدَ لِسُنَّتِ اللَّهِ تَحْوِيلًا  
أَوَلَمْ يَسِيرُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ فَيَنظُرُوا كَيْفَ كَانَ عَاقِبَةُ الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ وَكَانُوا أَشَدَّ مِنْهُمْ قُوَّةً 
وَمَا كَانَ اللَّهُ لِيُعْجِزَهُ مِن شَيْءٍ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَلَا فِي الْأَرْضِ إِنَّهُ كَانَ عَلِيمًا قَدِيرًا

(Due to) arrogance in the land and plotting (of) the evil; but not encompasses the plot (of) the evil except its own people. 
Then do they wait except (the) way (of) the former (people)? 
But never you will find in (the) way (of) Allah any change, and never you will find in (the) way (of) Allah any alteration. 
Have they not traveled in the land and seen how was (the) end (of) those who (were) before them? And they were stronger than them (in) power. 
But not is Allah that can escape (from) Him any thing in the heavens and not in the earth. Indeed, He is All-Knower, All-Powerful.
[Al-Quran 35:43-44]

 Excerpt from The Mighty Ancients (presentation)

Earth Reset

إِنَّ رَبَّكُمُ اللَّهُ الَّذِي خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ فِي سِتَّةِ أَيَّامٍ ثُمَّ اسْتَوَىٰ عَلَى الْعَرْشِ يُغْشِي اللَّيْلَ النَّهَارَ يَطْلُبُهُ حَثِيثًا وَالشَّمْسَ وَالْقَمَرَ وَالنُّجُومَ مُسَخَّرَاتٍ بِأَمْرِهِ أَلَا لَهُ الْخَلْقُ وَالْأَمْرُ تَبَارَكَ اللَّهُ رَبُّ الْعَالَمِينَ
ادْعُوا رَبَّكُمْ تَضَرُّعًا وَخُفْيَةً إِنَّهُ لَا يُحِبُّ الْمُعْتَدِينَ 
وَلَا تُفْسِدُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ بَعْدَ إِصْلَاحِهَا 
وَادْعُوهُ خَوْفًا وَطَمَعًا إِنَّ رَحْمَتَ اللَّهِ قَرِيبٌ مِّنَ الْمُحْسِنِينَ
وَهُوَ الَّذِي يُرْسِلُ الرِّيَاحَ بُشْرًا بَيْنَ يَدَيْ رَحْمَتِهِ حَتَّىٰ إِذَا أَقَلَّتْ سَحَابًا ثِقَالًا سُقْنَاهُ لِبَلَدٍ مَّيِّتٍ فَأَنزَلْنَا بِهِ الْمَاءَ فَأَخْرَجْنَا بِهِ مِن كُلِّ الثَّمَرَاتِ كَذَٰلِكَ نُخْرِجُ الْمَوْتَىٰ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَذَكَّرُونَ وَالْبَلَدُ الطَّيِّبُ يَخْرُجُ نَبَاتُهُ بِإِذْنِ رَبِّهِ وَالَّذِي خَبُثَ لَا يَخْرُجُ إِلَّا نَكِدًا كَذَٰلِكَ نُصَرِّفُ الْآيَاتِ لِقَوْمٍ يَشْكُرُونَ
لَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا نُوحًا إِلَىٰ قَوْمِهِ فَقَالَ يَا قَوْمِ اعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ مَا لَكُم مِّنْ إِلَٰهٍ غَيْرُهُ إِنِّي أَخَافُ عَلَيْكُمْ عَذَابَ يَوْمٍ عَظِيمٍ

Indeed, your Lord (is) Allah the One Who created the heavens and the earth in six epochs, then He ascended on the Throne. He covers the night (with) the day seeking it rapidly and the sun and the moon and the stars - subjected by His command. Unquestionably for Him (is) the creation and the command, blessed (is) Allah, Lord (of) the worlds.
Call upon your Lord humbly and privately. Indeed, He (does) not love the transgressors. 
And (do) not cause corruption in the earth after its reformation.
And call Him (in) fear and hope. Indeed, (the) Mercy of Allah (is) near for the good-doers.
And He (is) the One Who sends the winds (as) glad tidings before His Mercy, until, when they have carried clouds - heavy, We drive them to a dead land then We send down from it the water then We bring forth from it all (kinds) of [the] fruits. Thus We will bring forth the dead so that you may take heed. And the land - [the] pure, comes forth its vegetation by (the) permission (of) its Lord, but which is bad - (does) not come forth except (with) difficulty. Thus We explain the Signs for a people who are grateful.
Certainly, We sent Nuh to his people and he said, "O my people! Worship Allah, not for you any god other than Him. Indeed, I [I] fear for you punishment (of the) Day Great."
[Al-Quran 7:54-59

After narrating the fate of the people to whom Messengers Hud, Saleh and Lut were sent, the Messenger Shoaib is quoted as warning his people:   

وَإِلَىٰ مَدْيَنَ أَخَاهُمْ شُعَيْبًا قَالَ يَا قَوْمِ اعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ مَا لَكُم مِّنْ إِلَٰهٍ غَيْرُهُ قَدْ جَاءَتْكُم بَيِّنَةٌ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ فَأَوْفُوا الْكَيْلَ وَالْمِيزَانَ وَلَا تَبْخَسُوا النَّاسَ أَشْيَاءَهُمْ 
وَلَا تُفْسِدُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ بَعْدَ إِصْلَاحِهَا
ذَٰلِكُمْ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ

And to Madyan, his brother Shuaib. He said, "O my people! Worship Allah, not for you any god other than Him. Verily, has came to you a clear proof from your Lord. So give full [the] measure and the weight and (do) not deprive [the] people in their things 
and (do) not cause corruption in the earth after its reformation.
 That (is) better for you if you are believers.
[Al-Quran 7:85]

After relating their story, the overall lesson is recapped: 

Then We changed (in) place (of) the bad the good, until they increased and said, "Verily, (had) touched our forefathers the adversity and the ease." So We seized them suddenly, while they (did) not perceive.
And if [that] people (of) the cities (had) believed and feared Allah surely We (would have) opened upon them blessings from the heaven and the earth but they denied. So We seized them for what they used to earn.
Then did feel secure (the) people (of) the cities that comes to them Our punishment (at) night while they (were) asleep? Or felt secure (the) people (of) the cities that comes to them Our punishment (in) daylight while they (were) playing? Then did they feel secure (from the) plan (of) Allah? 
But not feel secure (from the) plan (of) Allah except the people (who are) the losers.
Would it not guide [for] those who inherit the land after its people that if We willed, We (could) afflict them for their sins and We put a seal over their hearts so they (do) not hear?
These (were) the cities - We relate to you of their news. And certainly came to them their Messengers with clear proofs, but not they were to believe in what they (had) denied before. Thus Allah put a seal on (the) hearts (of) the disbelievers. And not We found for most of them any covenant. But We found most of them certainly, defiantly disobedient. Then We sent after them Musa with Our Signs to Firaun and his chiefs, But they were unjust to them.
So see how was (the) end (of) the corrupters.
[Al-Quran 7:95-103]

أَوَلَمْ يَنظُرُوا فِي مَلَكُوتِ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَمَا خَلَقَ اللَّهُ مِن شَيْءٍ  
وَأَنْ عَسَىٰ أَن يَكُونَ قَدِ اقْتَرَبَ أَجَلُهُمْ 
فَبِأَيِّ حَدِيثٍ بَعْدَهُ يُؤْمِنُونَ

Do not they look in (the) dominion (of) the heavens and the earth and what Allah has created of (every)thing  
and that perhaps [that] has verily come near - their term? 
So in what statement after this will they believe? 
[Al-Quran 7:185]

وَلَوْ يُؤَاخِذُ اللَّهُ النَّاسَ بِظُلْمِهِم مَّا تَرَكَ عَلَيْهَا مِن دَابَّةٍ
وَلَٰكِن يُؤَخِّرُهُمْ إِلَىٰ أَجَلٍ مُّسَمًّى 
فَإِذَا جَاءَ أَجَلُهُمْ 
لَا يَسْتَأْخِرُونَ سَاعَةً وَلَا يَسْتَقْدِمُونَ 

And if Allah were to seize the mankind for their wrongdoing not He (would) have left upon it any moving creature,  
but He defers them for a term appointed. 
Then when comes their terms 
not they (will) remain behind an hour and not they can advance (it).
[Al-Quran 16:61]

وَلَوْ يُؤَاخِذُ اللَّهُ النَّاسَ بِمَا كَسَبُوا مَا تَرَكَ عَلَىٰ ظَهْرِهَا مِن دَابَّةٍ 
وَلَٰكِن يُؤَخِّرُهُمْ إِلَىٰ أَجَلٍ مُّسَمًّى 
فَإِذَا جَاءَ أَجَلُهُمْ 
فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ بِعِبَادِهِ بَصِيرًا

And if Allah (were to) punish the people for what they have earned, not He would leave on its back any creature. 
But He gives them till a term appointed
And when comes their term
then indeed, Allah is of His slaves All-Seer.
[Al-Quran 35:45]

وَالسَّمَاءَ رَفَعَهَا وَوَضَعَ الْمِيزَانَ 
أَلَّا تَطْغَوْا فِي الْمِيزَانِ 
وَأَقِيمُوا الْوَزْنَ بِالْقِسْطِ وَلَا تُخْسِرُوا الْمِيزَانَ 

And the heaven, He raised it and He has set up the balance, 
That not you may transgress in the balance. 
And establish the weight in justice and (do) not make deficient the balance. 
[Al-Quran 55:7-9]

The last glacial period ended around 11,700 years ago. This event was part of a much larger Ice Age, estimated to have started about two million years ago and is still ongoing, with the polar regions of the Earth still under ice cover. The Quran predicts heating/overflowing of the seas, and thunderbolts like those which struck Aa`d and Samood. There is growing evidence of accelerated melt in the polar regions, and global warming is becoming more pronounced with the changes observed in the climate across the world. According to The Bible, the end times will be similar to the times of Noah and the times of Lot.

Reprieved for a Limited Time
Like all past people, archaic and ancient, our time is also limited. The scriptures warn of its approach, and The Quran specifically states that some of its conditions have already been met. When God spoke with Moses, He told him:

إِنَّ السَّاعَةَ آتِيَةٌ أَكَادُ أُخْفِيهَا لِتُجْزَىٰ كُلُّ نَفْسٍ بِمَا تَسْعَىٰ
Indeed, the Hour (will be) coming. I almost [I] hide it that may be recompensed every soul for what it strives. 
[Al-Quran 20:15]

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اتَّقُوا رَبَّكُمْ إِنَّ زَلْزَلَةَ السَّاعَةِ شَيْءٌ عَظِيمٌ 
يَوْمَ تَرَوْنَهَا تَذْهَلُ كُلُّ مُرْضِعَةٍ عَمَّا أَرْضَعَتْ وَتَضَعُ كُلُّ ذَاتِ حَمْلٍ حَمْلَهَا وَتَرَى النَّاسَ سُكَارَىٰ وَمَا هُم بِسُكَارَىٰ وَلَٰكِنَّ عَذَابَ اللَّهِ شَدِيدٌ
O mankind! Fear your Lord. Indeed, (the) convulsion (of) the Hour (is) a thing great. 
(The) Day you will see it, will forget every nursing mother that which she was nursing, and will deliver every pregnant woman her load, and you will see [the] mankind intoxicated, while not they (are) intoxicated; but (the) punishment (of) Allah (will be) severe.
[Al-Quran 22:1-2]

فَهَلْ يَنظُرُونَ إِلَّا السَّاعَةَ أَن تَأْتِيَهُم بَغْتَةً
  فَقَدْ جَاءَ أَشْرَاطُهَا
 فَأَنَّىٰ لَهُمْ إِذَا جَاءَتْهُمْ ذِكْرَاهُمْ
Then do they wait but (for) the Hour that it should come to them suddenly?
But indeed, have come its indications.
Then how to them when has come to them their reminder.
[Al-Quran 47:18]

اقْتَرَبَتِ السَّاعَةُ وَانشَقَّ الْقَمَرُ
Has come near the Hour and has split the moon.
[Al-Quran 54:1]

[Related posts: Crime & Punishment]

 The Hour & The Day

وَحَرَامٌ عَلَىٰ قَرْيَةٍ أَهْلَكْنَاهَا أَنَّهُمْ لَا يَرْجِعُونَ حَتَّىٰ إِذَا فُتِحَتْ يَأْجُوجُ وَمَأْجُوجُ وَهُم مِّن كُلِّ حَدَبٍ يَنسِلُونَ
The people whom We destroyed can never return to this world until Gog and Magog are let loose to rush down from the hills.
 [Al-Quran 21:95-96 Translation: Muhammad Sarwar]

Dhu-al-Qarnayn had contained the corruption of Gog and Magog by building an unscalable and impenetrable  barrier. When its construction was complete, he said: 

قَالَ هَٰذَا رَحْمَةٌ مِّن رَّبِّي فَإِذَا جَاءَ وَعْدُ رَبِّي جَعَلَهُ دَكَّاءَ وَكَانَ وَعْدُ رَبِّي حَقًّا
وَتَرَكْنَا بَعْضَهُمْ يَوْمَئِذٍ يَمُوجُ فِي بَعْضٍ وَنُفِخَ فِي الصُّورِ فَجَمَعْنَاهُمْ جَمْعًا
Dhu l-Qarnayn said, "This barrier is a blessing from my Lord but when His promise comes to pass He will level it to the ground; His promise always comes true." And We (will) leave some of them (on) that Day to surge over others, and (will be) blown in the trumpet, then We (will) gather them all together.
 [Al-Quran 18:98-99 Translation: Muhammad Sarwar]

نَحْنُ قَدَّرْنَا بَيْنَكُمُ الْمَوْتَ وَمَا نَحْنُ بِمَسْبُوقِينَ عَلَىٰ أَن نُّبَدِّلَ أَمْثَالَكُمْ وَنُنشِئَكُمْ فِي مَا لَا تَعْلَمُونَ وَلَقَدْ عَلِمْتُمُ النَّشْأَةَ الْأُولَىٰ فَلَوْلَا تَذَكَّرُونَ
We have decreed death among you, and We are not to be outdone In that We will change your likenesses and produce you in that [form] which you do not know. And you have already known the first creation, so will you not remember? 
[Al-Qur’an 56:60-62, translator: Sahih International]

Surah al-Waqiah (Q56) makes special mention of the former and latter people, detailing the sorting of all into three categories in the Hereafter: those brought near; the people of the right; and the people of the left.  

وَضَرَبَ لَنَا مَثَلًا وَنَسِيَ خَلْقَهُ قَالَ  مَن يُحْيِي الْعِظَامَ وَهِيَ رَمِيمٌ
قُلْ يُحْيِيهَا الَّذِي أَنشَأَهَا أَوَّلَ مَرَّةٍ وَهُوَ بِكُلِّ خَلْقٍ عَلِيمٌ
الَّذِي جَعَلَ لَكُم مِّنَ الشَّجَرِ الْأَخْضَرِ نَارًا فَإِذَا أَنتُم مِّنْهُ تُوقِدُونَ
أَوَلَيْسَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ بِقَادِرٍ عَلَىٰ أَن يَخْلُقَ مِثْلَهُم بَلَىٰ وَهُوَ الْخَلَّاقُ الْعَلِيمُ
إِنَّمَا أَمْرُهُ إِذَا أَرَادَ شَيْئًا أَن يَقُولَ لَهُ كُن فَيَكُونُ
فَسُبْحَانَ الَّذِي بِيَدِهِ مَلَكُوتُ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ وَإِلَيْهِ تُرْجَعُونَ 
And he sets forth for Us an example and forgets his (own) creation. He says, "Who will give life (to) the bones while they (are) decomposed?"
Say, "He will give them life Who produced them (the) first time; and He (is) of every creation All-Knower."
The One Who made for you from the tree [the] green - fire, and behold! You from it ignite.
Is it not (He) Who created the heavens and the earth Able to [that] create (the) like of them. Yes, indeed! and He (is) the Supreme Creator, the All-Knower.
Only His Command when He intends a thing that He says to it, "Be," and it is.
So glory be (to) the in Whose hand is (the) dominion (of) all things, and to you will be returned. 
[Al-Qur’an 36:78-83]

Divine Advice

Satan threatens with temporal poverty, while Allah promises abundant, eternal rewards. The Quran repeatedly warns and give glad tidings to those who are sincere in deen:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تُلْهِكُمْ أَمْوَالُكُمْ وَلَا أَوْلَادُكُمْ عَن ذِكْرِ اللَّهِ وَمَن يَفْعَلْ ذَٰلِكَ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْخَاسِرُونَ
وَأَنفِقُوا مِن مَّا رَزَقْنَاكُم مِّن قَبْلِ أَن يَأْتِيَ أَحَدَكُمُ الْمَوْتُ فَيَقُولَ رَبِّ لَوْلَا أَخَّرْتَنِي إِلَىٰ أَجَلٍ قَرِيبٍ فَأَصَّدَّقَ وَأَكُن مِّنَ الصَّالِحِينَ
وَلَن يُؤَخِّرَ اللَّهُ نَفْسًا إِذَا جَاءَ أَجَلُهَا وَاللَّهُ خَبِيرٌ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ  
O you who believe! (Let) not divert you your wealth and not your children from (the) remembrance (of) Allah. And whoever does that, then those [they] (are) the losers.
And spend from what We have provided you before [that] comes (to) one of you the death and he says, "My Lord! Why not You delay me for a term near so I would give charity and be among the righteous."
But never will Allah delay a soul when has come its term. And Allah (is) All-Aware of what you do.           
[Al-Quran 63:9-11]

قُل لِّلَّذِينَ آمَنُوا يَغْفِرُوا لِلَّذِينَ لَا يَرْجُونَ أَيَّامَ اللَّهِ لِيَجْزِيَ قَوْمًا بِمَا كَانُوا يَكْسِبُونَ 
مَنْ عَمِلَ صَالِحًا فَلِنَفْسِهِ وَمَنْ أَسَاءَ فَعَلَيْهَا ثُمَّ إِلَىٰ رَبِّكُمْ تُرْجَعُونَ
Say to those who believe (to) forgive those who (do) not hope (for the) days (of) Allahthat He may recompense a people for what they used to earnWhoever does a righteous deed, then it is for his soul, and whoever does evil, then it (is) against itThen to your Lord you will be returned.
[Al Qur'an 45:14-15
[Related posts: Days of Allah]

May Allah forgive us before our death, have mercy on us in our death, not punish us after our death, and not make us account for our deeds on the Day when we will be resurrected and judged. May Allah be well-pleased with us, and may He grant us the inheritance of His Gardens of Eternity. Aameen.  

References & Links  


Homo is the genus that encompasses the extant species Homo sapiens (modern humans), plus several extinct species classified as ancestral to or closely related to modern humans, most notably Homo erectus. The genus is between 2 and 3 million years old, taken to emerge with the appearance of Homo habilis[1] and possibly that of Homo gautengensis.[2]Homo is derived from the genus Australopithecus, which itself had previously split from the lineage of Pan, the chimpanzees.[3] Taxonomically, Homo is the only genus assigned to the subtribe Hominina which, with the subtribes Australopithecina and Panina, comprise the tribe Hominini (see evolutionary tree below). All species of the genus Homo plus those species of the australopithecines that arose after the split from Pan are called hominins.

Archaic humans  
A number of varieties of Homo are grouped into the broad category of archaic humans in the period beginning 500,000 years ago (or 500ka). It typically includes Homo neanderthalensis (40ka–250ka),[1] Homo rhodesiensis (125ka-300ka), Homo heidelbergensis (200ka-600ka), and may also include Homo antecessor (800ka-1200ka).[2] This category is contrasted with anatomically modern humans, which include the subspecies Homo sapiens sapiens and Homo sapiens idaltu.
Modern humans are theorized to have evolved from archaic humans, who in turn evolved from Homo erectus. Varieties of archaic humans are sometimes included under the binomial name "Homo sapiens" (Latin: "wise man") because their brain size is very similar to that of modern humans. Archaic humans had a brain size averaging 1200 to 1400 cubic centimeters, which overlaps with the range of modern humans. Archaics are distinguished from anatomically modern humans by having a thick skull, prominent supraorbital ridges (brow ridges) and the lack of a prominent chin.[2][3]
Anatomically modern humans appear from about 200,000 years ago and after 70,000 years ago (see Toba catastrophe theory), gradually supplanting the "archaic" human varieties. Non-modern varieties of Homo are certain to have survived until after 30,000 years ago, and perhaps until as recent as 10,000 years ago. Which of these, if any, are included under the term "archaic human" is a matter of definition and varies among authors. Nonetheless, according to recent genetic studiesmodern humans may have bred with "at least two groups" of ancient humans: Neanderthals and Denisovans.[4] Other studies have cast doubt on admixture being the source of the shared genetic markers between archaic and modern humans, pointing to an ancestral origin of the traits originating 500,000–800,000 years ago.[5][6][7]

Most recent common ancestor
“In organisms using sexual reproduction, the matrilinear MRCA and patrilinear MRCA are the MRCAs of a given population considering only matrilineal and patrilineal descent, respectively. The MRCA of a population by definition cannot be older than either its matrilinear or its patrilinear MRCA. In the case of Homo sapiens, the matrilinear and patrilinear MRCA are also known as "Mitochondrial Eve" (mt-MRCA) and "Y-chromosomal Adam" (Y-MRCA) respectively.
The age of the human MRCA is unknown. It is necessarily younger than the age of both Y-MRCA and mt-MRCA, estimated at around 200,000 years, and it may be as recent as some 3,000 years ago.[2]
The Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA) is the most recent common ancestor of all current life on Earth, estimated to have lived some 3.5 to 3.8 billion years ago (in the Paleoarchean).[3]

List of human evolution fossils

Last glacial period
The last glacial period, popularly known as the Ice Age, was the most recent glacial period, which occurred from c. 110,000 – c. 11,700 years ago. This most recent glacial period is part of a larger pattern of glacial and interglacial periods known as the Quaternary glaciation (c. 2,588,000 years ago to present).[1] From this point of view, scientists consider this "ice age" to be merely the latest glaciation event in a much larger ice age, one that dates back over two million years and is still ongoing.
During this last glacial period, there were several changes between glacier advance and retreat. The Last Glacial Maximum, the maximum extent of glaciation within the last glacial period, was approximately 22,000 years ago. While the general pattern of global cooling and glacier advance was similar, local differences in the development of glacier advance and retreat make it difficult to compare the details from continent to continent (see picture of ice core data below for differences). Approximately 13,000 years ago, the Late Glacial Maximum began. Around 11,700 years ago marked the beginning of the Holocene geological epoch, which includes the Holocene glacial retreat.
From the point of view of human archaeology, it falls in the Paleolithic and Mesolithic periods. When the glaciation event started, Homo sapiens was confined to lower lattitudes and used tools comparable to those used by Neanderthals in western and central Eurasia and by Homo erectus in Asia. Near the end of the event, Homo sapiens invaded Eurasia and Australia. Archaeological and genetic data suggest that the source populations of Paleolithic humans survived the last glacial period in sparsely wooded areas and dispersed through areas of high primary productivity while avoiding dense forest cover.[2] The retreat of the glaciers 15,000 years ago allowed groups of humans from Asia to migrate to the Americas.

Last updated on January 2, 2018