[Al-Quran 50:6-8] Have they not looked at the heaven above them - how We structured it and adorned it and how it has no rifts? And the earth - We spread it out and cast therein firmly set mountains and made grow therein [something] of every beautiful kind, Giving insight and a reminder for every servant who turns [to Allah].

Sunday, December 10, 2017

Humans: Extinct & Extant

Fossils & Ruins; Last Glacial Period & Global Warming 
No change should there be in the creation of Allah [Quran 30:30] 

The Earth has witnessed many generations of the genus Homo, most of whom are now extinct. Homo sapiens is the extant specie, which now dominates this planet.
The Earth has also experienced many glacial periods, as well as catastrophic events, wiping out entire populations, of whom the fossils and ruins remain.
Global warming is now pointing towards another major climate shift, which may mark the end of the Homo sapiens.
The Quran repeatedly warns us of a fixed hour, when everyone will die. More importantly, The Quran also informs us of a resurrection and warns of a reckoning that will follow it.

Full Text
عَمَّ يَتَسَاءَلُونَ
عَنِ النَّبَإِ الْعَظِيمِ
About what are they asking one another?
About the News the Great,
[Al-Quran 78:1-2]

أَلَمْ نُهْلِكِ الْأَوَّلِينَ 
ثُمَّ نُتْبِعُهُمُ الْآخِرِينَ
Did not We destroy the former (people)?
Then We follow them up (with) the later ones.
[Al-Quran 77:16-17]

The Quran uses very definitive and precise terms, for example: al-Insaan, an-Nas, Adam and bani Adam. Many religious people believe Adam to be the first human, yet neither The Bible nor The Quran makes any such assertion.

The Bible presents two genesis stories:

The Quran also discusses the creation of humans and the creation of Adam, independent of each other:
Humans: Q4:1, Q6:98, Q7:189, Q32:7, …  

Each story needs to be studied carefully, so that we are able to understand its importance and its significance to our past, present and future.

The bani Adam, the sons /progeny of Adam, are the descendants of the Adam mentioned in the Quran. According to scientists, almost all humans alive today can trace our descent/lineage from a common biological Adam, also known as the Most Recent Common Ancestor.  

وَرَبُّكَ الْغَنِيُّ ذُو الرَّحْمَةِ إِن يَشَأْ يُذْهِبْكُمْ وَيَسْتَخْلِفْ مِن بَعْدِكُم مَّا يَشَاءُ 
كَمَا أَنشَأَكُم مِّن ذُرِّيَّةِ قَوْمٍ آخَرِينَ
إِنَّ مَا تُوعَدُونَ لَآتٍ وَمَا أَنتُم بِمُعْجِزِينَ
And your Lord (is) the Self-Sufficient Owner of Mercy. If He wills He can take you away and grant succession after you (to) whom He wills. 
as He raised you from the descendants (of) other people.
Indeed, what you are promised (is) sure to come. And you (can) not escape (it).
[Al-Quran 6:133-134]

Many species of the genus homo are already extinct. When Moses was sent to Pharaoh, he asked Moses:

قَالَ فَمَا بَالُ الْقُرُونِ الْأُولَىٰ
He said, "Then what (is the) case (of) the generations (of) the former."
[Al-Quran 20:51]
Moses replied:

قَالَ عِلْمُهَا عِندَ رَبِّي فِي كِتَابٍ لَّا يَضِلُّ رَبِّي وَلَا يَنسَى
He said, "Its knowledge (is) with my Lord, in a Record. Not errs my Lord and not forgets."
[Al-Quran 20:52]  

When the Pharaoh and his people were drowned, al-Quran informs us that it was an exemplary punishment for the former (ancients) and the latter (modern):

فَأَخَذَهُ اللَّهُ نَكَالَ الْآخِرَةِ وَالْأُولَىٰ
So seized him Allah (with) an exemplary punishment (for) the last and the first.
[Al-Quran 79:25]

Most translators have taken الْآخِرَةِ and الْأُولَىٰ in the above ayat to mean Hereafter and this life; however usage of the nominal noun الْأُولَىٰ across the Quran, and the following ayaat make it clear that it’s a term describing the ancients: 

وَلَقَدْ آتَيْنَا مُوسَى الْكِتَابَ مِن بَعْدِ مَا أَهْلَكْنَا الْقُرُونَ الْأُولَىٰ بَصَائِرَ لِلنَّاسِ وَهُدًى وَرَحْمَةً لَّعَلَّهُمْ يَتَذَكَّرُونَ
After destroying the people of the ancient towns We gave the Book to Moses to be a source of knowledge, a guidance, and mercy for mankind so that perhaps they would take heed.
[Al-Quran 28:43, Translation: Muhammad Sarwar]

Thus, Moses’ era marks the transition from the ancient world to the modern. Moreover, Surah al-A`la also distinguishes between the ancient and the modern scriptures:

  إِنَّ هَٰذَا لَفِي الصُّحُفِ الْأُولَىٰ صُحُفِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَمُوسَىٰ
This is what is written in the ancient heavenly Books, the Scriptures of Abraham and Moses.
 [Al-Quran 87:18-19, Translation: Muhammad Sarwar] 

وَكَمْ أَهْلَكْنَا قَبْلَهُم مِّن قَرْنٍ هَلْ تُحِسُّ مِنْهُم مِّنْ أَحَدٍ أَوْ تَسْمَعُ لَهُمْ رِكْزًا
How many generations living before them did We destroy? Do you find anyone of them around or do you even hear any word from them?
 [Al-Quran 19:98, Translation: Muhammad Sarwar]

وَحَرَامٌ عَلَىٰ قَرْيَةٍ أَهْلَكْنَاهَا أَنَّهُمْ لَا يَرْجِعُونَ حَتَّىٰ إِذَا فُتِحَتْ يَأْجُوجُ وَمَأْجُوجُ وَهُم مِّن كُلِّ حَدَبٍ يَنسِلُونَ  
The people whom We destroyed can never return to this world until Gog and Magog are let loose to rush down from the hills.
 [Al-Quran 21:95-96 Translation: Muhammad Sarwar]

أَلَمْ يَرَوْا كَمْ أَهْلَكْنَا قَبْلَهُم مِّنَ الْقُرُونِ أَنَّهُمْ إِلَيْهِمْ لَا يَرْجِعُونَ
Have they not seen how many generations, living before them, had We destroyed and they cannot ever come back to them?
 [Al-Quran 36:31, Translation: Muhammad Sarwar]

Fossil Evidence
The Quran informs us of the ancients and how they are unable to return.
There are fossil evidences of many ancient species of the genus Homo who were different from us. Those extinct species of our genus are thought to have lived millions of years ago.

Another curiosity are the more recent elongated skulls discovered in many ancient ruins across the world. These are dated to have lived around a few thousand years ago. Though skulls can be deliberately deformed to a certain extent, yet there is growing evidence that many of those were naturally elongated skull-forms by birth. 

The Quran also informs us that they were mightier and greater in number and in impression upon the Earth. The ruins testify to their physical and mental strength. The elongated skull fossils have a larger brain-case, that imply a larger brain, which probably means enhanced mental abilities. The Quran endorses this view, informing us that we haven’t been given a tenth of what they had. It also speaks of the mighty stature of some, particularly about the Aad. There is some archeological evidence that once mighty giants may have trod upon the Earth.   

وَلَوْ تَرَىٰ إِذْ فَزِعُوا فَلَا فَوْتَ وَأُخِذُوا مِن مَّكَانٍ قَرِيبٍ
وَقَالُوا آمَنَّا بِهِ وَأَنَّىٰ لَهُمُ التَّنَاوُشُ مِن مَّكَانٍ بَعِيدٍ
وَقَدْ كَفَرُوا بِهِ مِن قَبْلُ وَيَقْذِفُونَ بِالْغَيْبِ مِن مَّكَانٍ بَعِيدٍ
 وَحِيلَ بَيْنَهُمْ وَبَيْنَ مَا يَشْتَهُونَ كَمَا فُعِلَ بِأَشْيَاعِهِم مِّن قَبْلُ إِنَّهُمْ كَانُوا فِي شَكٍّ مُّرِيبٍ  
And if you (could) see when they will be terrified but (there will be) no escape, and they will be seized from a place near. And they will say, "We believe in it." But how for them (will be) the receiving from a place far off? And certainly, they disbelieved in it before. And they utter conjectures about the unseen from a place far off.
 And a barrier will be placed between them and between what they desire, as was done with their kind before. Indeed, they were in doubt disquieting. 
 [Al-Quran 34:51-54

وَمَا أَمْرُنَا إِلَّا وَاحِدَةٌ كَلَمْحٍ بِالْبَصَرِ
 وَلَقَدْ أَهْلَكْنَا أَشْيَاعَكُمْ فَهَلْ مِن مُّدَّكِرٍ  
And not (is) Our Command but one, like the twinkling (of) the eye.
 And certainly We destroyed your kinds, so is (there) any who will receive admonition?

Each received Guidance

وَيَقُولُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا لَوْلَا أُنزِلَ عَلَيْهِ آيَةٌ مِّن رَّبِّهِ 
 إِنَّمَا أَنتَ مُنذِرٌ وَلِكُلِّ قَوْمٍ هَادٍ
And say those who disbelieved, "Why not has been sent down to him a sign from his Lord?" 
Only you (are) a warner, and for every people (is) a guide.
[Al-Quran 13:7]

According to the Quran, each extinct human civilization was destroyed when they wronged their NAFS and refused to repent, in spite of their messenger(s) guiding them with divinely inspired message. This further corroborates the theory that they were at an advanced level of technology. 

No change in the Sunnat of Allah

اسْتِكْبَارًا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَمَكْرَ السَّيِّئِ وَلَا يَحِيقُ الْمَكْرُ السَّيِّئُ إِلَّا بِأَهْلِهِ
  فَهَلْ يَنظُرُونَ إِلَّا سُنَّتَ الْأَوَّلِينَ  
فَلَن تَجِدَ لِسُنَّتِ اللَّهِ تَبْدِيلًا وَلَن تَجِدَ لِسُنَّتِ اللَّهِ تَحْوِيلًا  
أَوَلَمْ يَسِيرُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ فَيَنظُرُوا كَيْفَ كَانَ عَاقِبَةُ الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ وَكَانُوا أَشَدَّ مِنْهُمْ قُوَّةً 
وَمَا كَانَ اللَّهُ لِيُعْجِزَهُ مِن شَيْءٍ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَلَا فِي الْأَرْضِ إِنَّهُ كَانَ عَلِيمًا قَدِيرًا

(Due to) arrogance in the land and plotting (of) the evil; but not encompasses the plot (of) the evil except its own people. 
Then do they wait except (the) way (of) the former (people)? 
But never you will find in (the) way (of) Allah any change, and never you will find in (the) way (of) Allah any alteration. 
Have they not traveled in the land and seen how was (the) end (of) those who (were) before them? And they were stronger than them (in) power. 
But not is Allah that can escape (from) Him any thing in the heavens and not in the earth. Indeed, He is All-Knower, All-Powerful.
[Al-Quran 35:43-44]

 Excerpt from The Mighty Ancients (presentation)

Earth Reset

إِنَّ رَبَّكُمُ اللَّهُ الَّذِي خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ فِي سِتَّةِ أَيَّامٍ ثُمَّ اسْتَوَىٰ عَلَى الْعَرْشِ يُغْشِي اللَّيْلَ النَّهَارَ يَطْلُبُهُ حَثِيثًا وَالشَّمْسَ وَالْقَمَرَ وَالنُّجُومَ مُسَخَّرَاتٍ بِأَمْرِهِ أَلَا لَهُ الْخَلْقُ وَالْأَمْرُ تَبَارَكَ اللَّهُ رَبُّ الْعَالَمِينَ
ادْعُوا رَبَّكُمْ تَضَرُّعًا وَخُفْيَةً إِنَّهُ لَا يُحِبُّ الْمُعْتَدِينَ 
وَلَا تُفْسِدُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ بَعْدَ إِصْلَاحِهَا 
وَادْعُوهُ خَوْفًا وَطَمَعًا إِنَّ رَحْمَتَ اللَّهِ قَرِيبٌ مِّنَ الْمُحْسِنِينَ
وَهُوَ الَّذِي يُرْسِلُ الرِّيَاحَ بُشْرًا بَيْنَ يَدَيْ رَحْمَتِهِ حَتَّىٰ إِذَا أَقَلَّتْ سَحَابًا ثِقَالًا سُقْنَاهُ لِبَلَدٍ مَّيِّتٍ فَأَنزَلْنَا بِهِ الْمَاءَ فَأَخْرَجْنَا بِهِ مِن كُلِّ الثَّمَرَاتِ كَذَٰلِكَ نُخْرِجُ الْمَوْتَىٰ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَذَكَّرُونَ وَالْبَلَدُ الطَّيِّبُ يَخْرُجُ نَبَاتُهُ بِإِذْنِ رَبِّهِ وَالَّذِي خَبُثَ لَا يَخْرُجُ إِلَّا نَكِدًا كَذَٰلِكَ نُصَرِّفُ الْآيَاتِ لِقَوْمٍ يَشْكُرُونَ
لَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا نُوحًا إِلَىٰ قَوْمِهِ فَقَالَ يَا قَوْمِ اعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ مَا لَكُم مِّنْ إِلَٰهٍ غَيْرُهُ إِنِّي أَخَافُ عَلَيْكُمْ عَذَابَ يَوْمٍ عَظِيمٍ

Indeed, your Lord (is) Allah the One Who created the heavens and the earth in six epochs, then He ascended on the Throne. He covers the night (with) the day seeking it rapidly and the sun and the moon and the stars - subjected by His command. Unquestionably for Him (is) the creation and the command, blessed (is) Allah, Lord (of) the worlds.
Call upon your Lord humbly and privately. Indeed, He (does) not love the transgressors. 
And (do) not cause corruption in the earth after its reformation.
And call Him (in) fear and hope. Indeed, (the) Mercy of Allah (is) near for the good-doers.
And He (is) the One Who sends the winds (as) glad tidings before His Mercy, until, when they have carried clouds - heavy, We drive them to a dead land then We send down from it the water then We bring forth from it all (kinds) of [the] fruits. Thus We will bring forth the dead so that you may take heed. And the land - [the] pure, comes forth its vegetation by (the) permission (of) its Lord, but which is bad - (does) not come forth except (with) difficulty. Thus We explain the Signs for a people who are grateful.
Certainly, We sent Nuh to his people and he said, "O my people! Worship Allah, not for you any god other than Him. Indeed, I [I] fear for you punishment (of the) Day Great."
[Al-Quran 7:54-59

After narrating the fate of the people to whom Messengers Hud, Saleh and Lut were sent, the Messenger Shoaib is quoted as warning his people:   

وَإِلَىٰ مَدْيَنَ أَخَاهُمْ شُعَيْبًا قَالَ يَا قَوْمِ اعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ مَا لَكُم مِّنْ إِلَٰهٍ غَيْرُهُ قَدْ جَاءَتْكُم بَيِّنَةٌ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ فَأَوْفُوا الْكَيْلَ وَالْمِيزَانَ وَلَا تَبْخَسُوا النَّاسَ أَشْيَاءَهُمْ 
وَلَا تُفْسِدُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ بَعْدَ إِصْلَاحِهَا
ذَٰلِكُمْ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ

And to Madyan, his brother Shuaib. He said, "O my people! Worship Allah, not for you any god other than Him. Verily, has came to you a clear proof from your Lord. So give full [the] measure and the weight and (do) not deprive [the] people in their things 
and (do) not cause corruption in the earth after its reformation.
 That (is) better for you if you are believers.
[Al-Quran 7:85]

After relating their story, the overall lesson is recapped: 

Then We changed (in) place (of) the bad the good, until they increased and said, "Verily, (had) touched our forefathers the adversity and the ease." So We seized them suddenly, while they (did) not perceive.
And if [that] people (of) the cities (had) believed and feared Allah surely We (would have) opened upon them blessings from the heaven and the earth but they denied. So We seized them for what they used to earn.
Then did feel secure (the) people (of) the cities that comes to them Our punishment (at) night while they (were) asleep? Or felt secure (the) people (of) the cities that comes to them Our punishment (in) daylight while they (were) playing? Then did they feel secure (from the) plan (of) Allah? 
But not feel secure (from the) plan (of) Allah except the people (who are) the losers.
Would it not guide [for] those who inherit the land after its people that if We willed, We (could) afflict them for their sins and We put a seal over their hearts so they (do) not hear?
These (were) the cities - We relate to you of their news. And certainly came to them their Messengers with clear proofs, but not they were to believe in what they (had) denied before. Thus Allah put a seal on (the) hearts (of) the disbelievers. And not We found for most of them any covenant. But We found most of them certainly, defiantly disobedient. Then We sent after them Musa with Our Signs to Firaun and his chiefs, But they were unjust to them.
So see how was (the) end (of) the corrupters.
[Al-Quran 7:95-103]

أَوَلَمْ يَنظُرُوا فِي مَلَكُوتِ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَمَا خَلَقَ اللَّهُ مِن شَيْءٍ  
وَأَنْ عَسَىٰ أَن يَكُونَ قَدِ اقْتَرَبَ أَجَلُهُمْ 
فَبِأَيِّ حَدِيثٍ بَعْدَهُ يُؤْمِنُونَ

Do not they look in (the) dominion (of) the heavens and the earth and what Allah has created of (every)thing  
and that perhaps [that] has verily come near - their term? 
So in what statement after this will they believe? 
[Al-Quran 7:185]

وَلَوْ يُؤَاخِذُ اللَّهُ النَّاسَ بِظُلْمِهِم مَّا تَرَكَ عَلَيْهَا مِن دَابَّةٍ
وَلَٰكِن يُؤَخِّرُهُمْ إِلَىٰ أَجَلٍ مُّسَمًّى 
فَإِذَا جَاءَ أَجَلُهُمْ 
لَا يَسْتَأْخِرُونَ سَاعَةً وَلَا يَسْتَقْدِمُونَ 

And if Allah were to seize the mankind for their wrongdoing not He (would) have left upon it any moving creature,  
but He defers them for a term appointed. 
Then when comes their terms 
not they (will) remain behind an hour and not they can advance (it).
[Al-Quran 16:61]

وَلَوْ يُؤَاخِذُ اللَّهُ النَّاسَ بِمَا كَسَبُوا مَا تَرَكَ عَلَىٰ ظَهْرِهَا مِن دَابَّةٍ 
وَلَٰكِن يُؤَخِّرُهُمْ إِلَىٰ أَجَلٍ مُّسَمًّى 
فَإِذَا جَاءَ أَجَلُهُمْ 
فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ بِعِبَادِهِ بَصِيرًا

And if Allah (were to) punish the people for what they have earned, not He would leave on its back any creature. 
But He gives them till a term appointed
And when comes their term
then indeed, Allah is of His slaves All-Seer.
[Al-Quran 35:45]

وَالسَّمَاءَ رَفَعَهَا وَوَضَعَ الْمِيزَانَ 
أَلَّا تَطْغَوْا فِي الْمِيزَانِ 
وَأَقِيمُوا الْوَزْنَ بِالْقِسْطِ وَلَا تُخْسِرُوا الْمِيزَانَ 

And the heaven, He raised it and He has set up the balance, 
That not you may transgress in the balance. 
And establish the weight in justice and (do) not make deficient the balance. 
[Al-Quran 55:7-9]

The last glacial period ended around 11,700 years ago. This event was part of a much larger Ice Age, estimated to have started about two million years ago and is still ongoing, with the polar regions of the Earth still under ice cover. The Quran predicts heating/overflowing of the seas, and thunderbolts like those which struck Aa`d and Samood. There is growing evidence of accelerated melt in the polar regions, and global warming is becoming more pronounced with the changes observed in the climate across the world. According to The Bible, the end times will be similar to the times of Noah and the times of Lot.

Reprieved for a Limited Time
Like all past people, archaic and ancient, our time is also limited. The scriptures warn of its approach, and The Quran specifically states that some of its conditions have already been met. When God spoke with Moses, He told him:

إِنَّ السَّاعَةَ آتِيَةٌ أَكَادُ أُخْفِيهَا لِتُجْزَىٰ كُلُّ نَفْسٍ بِمَا تَسْعَىٰ
Indeed, the Hour (will be) coming. I almost [I] hide it that may be recompensed every soul for what it strives. 
[Al-Quran 20:15]

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اتَّقُوا رَبَّكُمْ إِنَّ زَلْزَلَةَ السَّاعَةِ شَيْءٌ عَظِيمٌ 
يَوْمَ تَرَوْنَهَا تَذْهَلُ كُلُّ مُرْضِعَةٍ عَمَّا أَرْضَعَتْ وَتَضَعُ كُلُّ ذَاتِ حَمْلٍ حَمْلَهَا وَتَرَى النَّاسَ سُكَارَىٰ وَمَا هُم بِسُكَارَىٰ وَلَٰكِنَّ عَذَابَ اللَّهِ شَدِيدٌ
O mankind! Fear your Lord. Indeed, (the) convulsion (of) the Hour (is) a thing great. 
(The) Day you will see it, will forget every nursing mother that which she was nursing, and will deliver every pregnant woman her load, and you will see [the] mankind intoxicated, while not they (are) intoxicated; but (the) punishment (of) Allah (will be) severe.
[Al-Quran 22:1-2]

فَهَلْ يَنظُرُونَ إِلَّا السَّاعَةَ أَن تَأْتِيَهُم بَغْتَةً
  فَقَدْ جَاءَ أَشْرَاطُهَا
 فَأَنَّىٰ لَهُمْ إِذَا جَاءَتْهُمْ ذِكْرَاهُمْ
Then do they wait but (for) the Hour that it should come to them suddenly?
But indeed, have come its indications.
Then how to them when has come to them their reminder.
[Al-Quran 47:18]

اقْتَرَبَتِ السَّاعَةُ وَانشَقَّ الْقَمَرُ
Has come near the Hour and has split the moon.
[Al-Quran 54:1]

[Related posts: Crime & Punishment]

 The Hour & The Day

وَحَرَامٌ عَلَىٰ قَرْيَةٍ أَهْلَكْنَاهَا أَنَّهُمْ لَا يَرْجِعُونَ حَتَّىٰ إِذَا فُتِحَتْ يَأْجُوجُ وَمَأْجُوجُ وَهُم مِّن كُلِّ حَدَبٍ يَنسِلُونَ
The people whom We destroyed can never return to this world until Gog and Magog are let loose to rush down from the hills.
 [Al-Quran 21:95-96 Translation: Muhammad Sarwar]

Dhu-al-Qarnayn had contained the corruption of Gog and Magog by building an unscalable and impenetrable  barrier. When its construction was complete, he said: 

قَالَ هَٰذَا رَحْمَةٌ مِّن رَّبِّي فَإِذَا جَاءَ وَعْدُ رَبِّي جَعَلَهُ دَكَّاءَ وَكَانَ وَعْدُ رَبِّي حَقًّا
وَتَرَكْنَا بَعْضَهُمْ يَوْمَئِذٍ يَمُوجُ فِي بَعْضٍ وَنُفِخَ فِي الصُّورِ فَجَمَعْنَاهُمْ جَمْعًا
Dhu l-Qarnayn said, "This barrier is a blessing from my Lord but when His promise comes to pass He will level it to the ground; His promise always comes true." And We (will) leave some of them (on) that Day to surge over others, and (will be) blown in the trumpet, then We (will) gather them all together.
 [Al-Quran 18:98-99 Translation: Muhammad Sarwar]

نَحْنُ قَدَّرْنَا بَيْنَكُمُ الْمَوْتَ وَمَا نَحْنُ بِمَسْبُوقِينَ عَلَىٰ أَن نُّبَدِّلَ أَمْثَالَكُمْ وَنُنشِئَكُمْ فِي مَا لَا تَعْلَمُونَ وَلَقَدْ عَلِمْتُمُ النَّشْأَةَ الْأُولَىٰ فَلَوْلَا تَذَكَّرُونَ
We have decreed death among you, and We are not to be outdone In that We will change your likenesses and produce you in that [form] which you do not know. And you have already known the first creation, so will you not remember? 
[Al-Qur’an 56:60-62, translator: Sahih International]

Surah al-Waqiah (Q56) makes special mention of the former and latter people, detailing the sorting of all into three categories in the Hereafter: those brought near; the people of the right; and the people of the left.  

وَضَرَبَ لَنَا مَثَلًا وَنَسِيَ خَلْقَهُ قَالَ  مَن يُحْيِي الْعِظَامَ وَهِيَ رَمِيمٌ
قُلْ يُحْيِيهَا الَّذِي أَنشَأَهَا أَوَّلَ مَرَّةٍ وَهُوَ بِكُلِّ خَلْقٍ عَلِيمٌ
الَّذِي جَعَلَ لَكُم مِّنَ الشَّجَرِ الْأَخْضَرِ نَارًا فَإِذَا أَنتُم مِّنْهُ تُوقِدُونَ
أَوَلَيْسَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ بِقَادِرٍ عَلَىٰ أَن يَخْلُقَ مِثْلَهُم بَلَىٰ وَهُوَ الْخَلَّاقُ الْعَلِيمُ
إِنَّمَا أَمْرُهُ إِذَا أَرَادَ شَيْئًا أَن يَقُولَ لَهُ كُن فَيَكُونُ
فَسُبْحَانَ الَّذِي بِيَدِهِ مَلَكُوتُ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ وَإِلَيْهِ تُرْجَعُونَ 
And he sets forth for Us an example and forgets his (own) creation. He says, "Who will give life (to) the bones while they (are) decomposed?"
Say, "He will give them life Who produced them (the) first time; and He (is) of every creation All-Knower."
The One Who made for you from the tree [the] green - fire, and behold! You from it ignite.
Is it not (He) Who created the heavens and the earth Able to [that] create (the) like of them. Yes, indeed! and He (is) the Supreme Creator, the All-Knower.
Only His Command when He intends a thing that He says to it, "Be," and it is.
So glory be (to) the in Whose hand is (the) dominion (of) all things, and to you will be returned. 
[Al-Qur’an 36:78-83]

Divine Advice

Satan threatens with temporal poverty, while Allah promises abundant, eternal rewards. The Quran repeatedly warns and give glad tidings to those who are sincere in deen:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تُلْهِكُمْ أَمْوَالُكُمْ وَلَا أَوْلَادُكُمْ عَن ذِكْرِ اللَّهِ وَمَن يَفْعَلْ ذَٰلِكَ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْخَاسِرُونَ
وَأَنفِقُوا مِن مَّا رَزَقْنَاكُم مِّن قَبْلِ أَن يَأْتِيَ أَحَدَكُمُ الْمَوْتُ فَيَقُولَ رَبِّ لَوْلَا أَخَّرْتَنِي إِلَىٰ أَجَلٍ قَرِيبٍ فَأَصَّدَّقَ وَأَكُن مِّنَ الصَّالِحِينَ
وَلَن يُؤَخِّرَ اللَّهُ نَفْسًا إِذَا جَاءَ أَجَلُهَا وَاللَّهُ خَبِيرٌ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ  
O you who believe! (Let) not divert you your wealth and not your children from (the) remembrance (of) Allah. And whoever does that, then those [they] (are) the losers.
And spend from what We have provided you before [that] comes (to) one of you the death and he says, "My Lord! Why not You delay me for a term near so I would give charity and be among the righteous."
But never will Allah delay a soul when has come its term. And Allah (is) All-Aware of what you do.           
[Al-Quran 63:9-11]

قُل لِّلَّذِينَ آمَنُوا يَغْفِرُوا لِلَّذِينَ لَا يَرْجُونَ أَيَّامَ اللَّهِ لِيَجْزِيَ قَوْمًا بِمَا كَانُوا يَكْسِبُونَ 
مَنْ عَمِلَ صَالِحًا فَلِنَفْسِهِ وَمَنْ أَسَاءَ فَعَلَيْهَا ثُمَّ إِلَىٰ رَبِّكُمْ تُرْجَعُونَ
Say to those who believe (to) forgive those who (do) not hope (for the) days (of) Allahthat He may recompense a people for what they used to earnWhoever does a righteous deed, then it is for his soul, and whoever does evil, then it (is) against itThen to your Lord you will be returned.
[Al Qur'an 45:14-15
[Related posts: Days of Allah]

May Allah forgive us before our death, have mercy on us in our death, not punish us after our death, and not make us account for our deeds on the Day when we will be resurrected and judged. May Allah be well-pleased with us, and may He grant us the inheritance of His Gardens of Eternity. Aameen.  

References & Links  


Homo is the genus that encompasses the extant species Homo sapiens (modern humans), plus several extinct species classified as ancestral to or closely related to modern humans, most notably Homo erectus. The genus is between 2 and 3 million years old, taken to emerge with the appearance of Homo habilis[1] and possibly that of Homo gautengensis.[2]Homo is derived from the genus Australopithecus, which itself had previously split from the lineage of Pan, the chimpanzees.[3] Taxonomically, Homo is the only genus assigned to the subtribe Hominina which, with the subtribes Australopithecina and Panina, comprise the tribe Hominini (see evolutionary tree below). All species of the genus Homo plus those species of the australopithecines that arose after the split from Pan are called hominins.

Archaic humans  
A number of varieties of Homo are grouped into the broad category of archaic humans in the period beginning 500,000 years ago (or 500ka). It typically includes Homo neanderthalensis (40ka–250ka),[1] Homo rhodesiensis (125ka-300ka), Homo heidelbergensis (200ka-600ka), and may also include Homo antecessor (800ka-1200ka).[2] This category is contrasted with anatomically modern humans, which include the subspecies Homo sapiens sapiens and Homo sapiens idaltu.
Modern humans are theorized to have evolved from archaic humans, who in turn evolved from Homo erectus. Varieties of archaic humans are sometimes included under the binomial name "Homo sapiens" (Latin: "wise man") because their brain size is very similar to that of modern humans. Archaic humans had a brain size averaging 1200 to 1400 cubic centimeters, which overlaps with the range of modern humans. Archaics are distinguished from anatomically modern humans by having a thick skull, prominent supraorbital ridges (brow ridges) and the lack of a prominent chin.[2][3]
Anatomically modern humans appear from about 200,000 years ago and after 70,000 years ago (see Toba catastrophe theory), gradually supplanting the "archaic" human varieties. Non-modern varieties of Homo are certain to have survived until after 30,000 years ago, and perhaps until as recent as 10,000 years ago. Which of these, if any, are included under the term "archaic human" is a matter of definition and varies among authors. Nonetheless, according to recent genetic studiesmodern humans may have bred with "at least two groups" of ancient humans: Neanderthals and Denisovans.[4] Other studies have cast doubt on admixture being the source of the shared genetic markers between archaic and modern humans, pointing to an ancestral origin of the traits originating 500,000–800,000 years ago.[5][6][7]

Most recent common ancestor
“In organisms using sexual reproduction, the matrilinear MRCA and patrilinear MRCA are the MRCAs of a given population considering only matrilineal and patrilineal descent, respectively. The MRCA of a population by definition cannot be older than either its matrilinear or its patrilinear MRCA. In the case of Homo sapiens, the matrilinear and patrilinear MRCA are also known as "Mitochondrial Eve" (mt-MRCA) and "Y-chromosomal Adam" (Y-MRCA) respectively.
The age of the human MRCA is unknown. It is necessarily younger than the age of both Y-MRCA and mt-MRCA, estimated at around 200,000 years, and it may be as recent as some 3,000 years ago.[2]
The Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA) is the most recent common ancestor of all current life on Earth, estimated to have lived some 3.5 to 3.8 billion years ago (in the Paleoarchean).[3]

List of human evolution fossils

Last glacial period
The last glacial period, popularly known as the Ice Age, was the most recent glacial period, which occurred from c. 110,000 – c. 11,700 years ago. This most recent glacial period is part of a larger pattern of glacial and interglacial periods known as the Quaternary glaciation (c. 2,588,000 years ago to present).[1] From this point of view, scientists consider this "ice age" to be merely the latest glaciation event in a much larger ice age, one that dates back over two million years and is still ongoing.
During this last glacial period, there were several changes between glacier advance and retreat. The Last Glacial Maximum, the maximum extent of glaciation within the last glacial period, was approximately 22,000 years ago. While the general pattern of global cooling and glacier advance was similar, local differences in the development of glacier advance and retreat make it difficult to compare the details from continent to continent (see picture of ice core data below for differences). Approximately 13,000 years ago, the Late Glacial Maximum began. Around 11,700 years ago marked the beginning of the Holocene geological epoch, which includes the Holocene glacial retreat.
From the point of view of human archaeology, it falls in the Paleolithic and Mesolithic periods. When the glaciation event started, Homo sapiens was confined to lower lattitudes and used tools comparable to those used by Neanderthals in western and central Eurasia and by Homo erectus in Asia. Near the end of the event, Homo sapiens invaded Eurasia and Australia. Archaeological and genetic data suggest that the source populations of Paleolithic humans survived the last glacial period in sparsely wooded areas and dispersed through areas of high primary productivity while avoiding dense forest cover.[2] The retreat of the glaciers 15,000 years ago allowed groups of humans from Asia to migrate to the Americas.

Last updated on April 2, 2018