[Al-Quran 50:6-8] Have they not looked at the heaven above them - how We structured it and adorned it and how it has no rifts? And the earth - We spread it out and cast therein firmly set mountains and made grow therein [something] of every beautiful kind, Giving insight and a reminder for every servant who turns [to Allah].

Saturday, March 14, 2015

Alternate Biochemistry


Abstract
In this Concept, the plausibility of alternate biochemistry is explored on the basis of known exotic creatures. The Quran 56:60-62 speaks of resurrection in an unknown form of creation, while drawing attention to the fact that we already know the first form of creation. 

Scientists continue to be amazed and baffled by the life forms that are being discovered in the most extreme and hostile of environments — it seems that the new challenge is to be able to not find life somewhere. Life seems to exist in all possible conditions. As the saying goes: life finds a way!  


Full Text

نَحْنُ قَدَّرْنَا بَيْنَكُمُ الْمَوْتَ وَمَا نَحْنُ بِمَسْبُوقِينَ
عَلَىٰ أَن نُّبَدِّلَ أَمْثَالَكُمْ وَنُنشِئَكُمْ فِي مَا لَا تَعْلَمُونَ
وَلَقَدْ عَلِمْتُمُ النَّشْأَةَ الْأُولَىٰ فَلَوْلَا تَذَكَّرُونَ


[Al-Qur’an 56:60-62, translator: Sahih International] We have decreed death among you, and We are not to be outdone In that We will change your likenesses and produce you in that [form] which you do not know. And you have already known the first creation, so will you not remember? 


The following verse also invites us to look closely at the existing creation so that we can understand that resurrection is easily possible and plausible: 
[Al-Qur’an Chapter 29:20, Translator: Shakir] Say: Travel in the earth and see how He makes the first creation, then Allah creates the latter creation; surely Allah has power over all things.

Chapter 56 of the Quran informs us of the Inevitable Event: resurrection and segregation of humans into three groups, and how each group will be eternally recompensed for their performance in the former temporal life on Earth. Verses 60-62 go on to state that it will be an alternate, unknown form of creation, drawing our attention to the forms of creation we already know on Earth. A few verses later, an oath is taken of the ‘setting’ of the stars [end stage of stellar evolution?] with the statement that, if we understood, we would realise it is a great oath! 


Silicone-based life 
[Al-Qur’an 56:75-76, translator: Sahih International] Then I swear by the setting of the stars, And indeed, it is an oath - if you could know - [most] great. 

Theory of Stellar Evolution informs us that the end stage of a star’s life is when silicon is burnt into iron. Beyond this, according to the theory, no further burning is possible. Life on Earth is basically carbon-based. Silicon, directly below carbon in the periodic table, is the proposed candidate to replace carbon in most fantasies about alien life. Though, so far, alternate types of biochemistry appear unstable and thus seem unrealistic, yet they are plausible. 

‘In 1891, the German astrophysicist Julius Scheiner became perhaps the first person to speculate on the suitability of silicon as a basis for life. This idea was taken up by the British chemist James Emerson Reynolds (1844–1920) who, in 1893, in his opening address to the British Association for the Advancement of Science, pointed out that the heat stability of silicon compounds might allow life to exist at very high temperatures. In an 1894 article, drawing on Reynolds's ideas and also those of Robert Ball, H. G. Wells wrote:
One is startled towards fantastic imaginings by such a suggestion: visions of silicon-aluminium organisms – why not silicon-aluminium men at once? – wandering through an atmosphere of gaseous sulphur, let us say, by the shores of a sea of liquid iron some thousand degrees or so above the temperature of a blast furnace. 
Thirty years later, J. B. S. Haldane suggested that life might be found deep inside a planet based on partly molten silicates, the oxidation of iron perhaps providing it with energy.’  


Hypothetical Types of Biochemistry 
Though life on Earth is carbon-based and requires water as a solvent, a number of other elements such as silicon, boron, sulphur, and so on are speculated as alternates. Ammonia, methane, hydrogen sulfide, silicon dioxide, etc are speculated as non-water solvents.  


Exotic Creatures on Planet Earth
Discoveries of creatures which exist, survive and even thrive in conditions which we normally consider hostile for existence, lends further credence to the speculated hypothetical types of biochemistry and the possibility of life existing elsewhere in the cosmos. 


Biogenic Silica 
Biogenic silica, found on Earth in some lifeforms, such as diatoms, implies that under different conditions, alternate forms of biochemistry can exist. 

‘Diatom cells are contained within a unique silica cell wall comprising two separate valves (or shells). The biogenic silica that the cell wall is composed of is synthesised intracellularly by the polymerisation of silicic acid monomers. This material is then extruded to the cell exterior and added to the wall. Diatom cell walls are also called frustules or "tests", and their two valves typically overlap one over the other like the two halves of a petri dish.’ 


Ferroplasma 
‘The members of the family Ferroplasmaceae are distributed worldwide and can be found in a variety of acidic environments with very stable chemical conditions, such as ore deposits, mines, and acid mine drainage systems (natural or man-made), and in areas with geothermal activity.’ 

‘ “This organism is ideally adapted to extremely hostile environments. It likes to live in highly acidic solutions containing toxic heavy metals. It is unable to exist at all under normal conditions… Ferroplasma is unique in the world of living organisms, as it contains iron in high concentrations. Now we aim to discover how its proteins function under such extreme conditions… It actually requires extremely acidic conditions to work.” 

‘ “Extraordinarily, the DNA ligase of Ferroplasma contains iron and does not need either magnesium or potassium. The iron is essential: removal results in loss of activity and, interestingly, its wonderful purple coloration.” However, the colour is less fascinating than the fact that Ferroplasma does not die as a result of the ordinarily toxic high concentration of iron in its cells which would severely damage genetic material in other cells, triggering mutations. 

‘ "The fact that an enzyme contains metal ions that damage DNA for the repair of DNA seems contradictory,”… "Maybe the ancestors of Ferroplasma integrated these substances into their metabolism. And afterwards they never left its environment, even as this became increasingly scarce on earth.” ’ 


Life inside Salt Crystals
‘THRIFTY microbes entombed in a salt crystal have survived for 30,000 years by feeding off the remains of algae that were trapped along with them. This is the most convincing example to date of long-term survival… The crystals contained tiny pockets of liquid, and the team found that they could grow live colonies of archaeans from samples of it. The team dated the liquid at between 22,000 and 34,000 years old… ’


Ancient Frozen Ecosystem 
‘ …the discovery of an ecosystem buried under the ice of one of these glaciers that stretches the definition of unusual well past the breaking point… Nobody would be likely to suspect that there is any life underneath the ice, which is hundreds of meters thick in the area, if it weren't for the striking red ice erupting from the glacier's terminus, giving the formation the name Blood Falls. That red color comes from iron concentrated in the ice, which exists primarily in the Fe(II) state favored when oxygen is absent. Thanks to a release event that occurred in 2004, researchers have projected where that iron originates, and suggested its likely source. They've also figured out what the environment at that source looks like… it appears that energy is obtained when sulfur is cycled through different oxidation states by reacting it with iron, producing the Fe(II) seen in the brine. The oxidized sulfur is then used to react with carbon compounds, powering the metabolism. All of that is pretty low-energy—the authors suggest that the doubling time for a bacterium in this environment would be roughly 300 days—and requires an external source of Fe(III) to power the system. The authors posit that the glacier itself might provide the source by extracting new iron as it scrapes across the underlying rocks.’  


References

Periodic Table

Stellar Evolution

Silicon

Hypothetical Types of Biochemistry 

Thursday, March 12, 2015

Explained in Detail

Related posts:
For complete list, see Blog Archive 

Most people tend to not to study the scriptures literally and objectively, resorting instead to other sources to take religious guidance, or to philosophy and metaphysics in their search for God.

The Quran [15:86] claims that it has been sent by Allah, the Master Creator, knowing all things. It also repeatedly insists that it is detailed and diversified. If that is the case, then all information contained in this book must be correct, and it should be able to describe creation accurately. 

People ask what is the point of my blog: http://signsandscience.blogspot.com/ The point of the blog is to study the factual accuracy of the Quran, and thereby verify that it is indeed from the Master Creator. I hope and pray that this blog helps establish how essential it is to study and contemplate upon each verse, without any prejudices or assumptions.

Abstract
Starting with verses 7:52 and 7:58, the relevant verses of the Quran have been collected in this post to help realise the significance of the Quran’s insistence upon itself being well-explained. Life is an open-book exam, and we cannot afford to put off taking guidance from the Quran. As verse 7:53 begins with the question: ‘Do they await except its result?’

Full Text
Billions of Muslims believe the Quran to be a divine scripture. The Quran itself claims to be sent by Allah, the Creator of the Heavens and the Earth and everything in it. It also claims that it is divinely protected from alterations. Thus, all verses in the arabic text of the Quran should be in their original pristine form, as revealed, and must be treated as such by all those who believe the Quran to be divinely revealed. This implies that each word of each verse merits serious attention, as it is a message from the Lord of the Worlds

The Quran also repeatedly claims that it is ‘explained in detail’. Verse 15:86 states that it has been sent by the Master Creator, knowing all things. It insists that it is detailed and diversified. Thus, such verses are collected here to study just how many times the Quran insists upon itself being ‘well-explained’ and consequently, to realise how seriously we must consider this text, as the consequence of accepting or rejecting the guidance is also detailed in the Book.  
  
Life is an open-book exam, and we cannot afford to put off taking guidance from the Quran. As verse 7:53 begins with the question: ‘Do they await except its result?’ 



الَّذِينَ اتَّخَذُوا دِينَهُمْ لَهْوًا وَلَعِبًا وَغَرَّتْهُمُ الْحَيَاةُ الدُّنْيَا ۚ فَالْيَوْمَ نَنسَاهُمْ كَمَا نَسُوا لِقَاء  
يَوْمِهِمْ هَـٰذَا وَمَا كَانُوا بِآيَاتِنَا يَجْحَدُونَ 
وَلَقَدْ جِئْنَاهُم بِكِتَابٍ فَصَّلْنَاهُ عَلَىٰ عِلْمٍ هُدًى وَرَحْمَةً لِّقَوْمٍ يُؤْمِنُونَ
هَلْ يَنظُرُونَ إِلَّا تَأْوِيلَهُ ۚ يَوْمَ يَأْتِي تَأْوِيلُهُ يَقُولُ الَّذِينَ نَسُوهُ مِن قَبْلُ قَدْ جَاءَتْ رُسُلُ رَبِّنَا بِالْحَقِّ فَهَل لَّنَا مِن شُفَعَاءَ فَيَشْفَعُوا لَنَا أَوْ نُرَدُّ فَنَعْمَلَ غَيْرَ الَّذِي كُنَّا نَعْمَلُ ۚ قَدْ خَسِرُوا أَنفُسَهُمْ وَضَلَّ عَنْهُم مَّا كَانُوا يَفْتَرُونَ
[Al-Qur’an 7:51-53, translator: Sahih International] Who took their religion as distraction and amusement and whom the worldly life deluded." So today We will forget them just as they forgot the meeting of this Day of theirs and for having rejected Our verses. And We had certainly brought them a Book which We detailed by knowledge - as guidance and mercy to a people who believe. Do they await except its result? The Day its result comes those who had ignored it before will say, "The messengers of our Lord had come with the truth, so are there [now] any intercessors to intercede for us or could we be sent back to do other than we used to do?" They will have lost themselves, and lost from them is what they used to invent. 

(6:55:2) nufaṣṣilu We explain وَكَذَٰلِكَ نُفَصِّلُ الْآيَاتِ وَلِتَسْتَبِينَ سَبِيلُ الْمُجْرِمِينَ
(6:97:13) faṣṣalnā We have made clear قَدْ فَصَّلْنَا الْآيَاتِ لِقَوْمٍ يَعْلَمُونَ
(6:98:10) faṣṣalnā We have made clear فَمُسْتَقَرٌّ وَمُسْتَوْدَعٌ قَدْ فَصَّلْنَا الْآيَاتِ لِقَوْمٍ يَفْقَهُونَ
(6:119:11) faṣṣala He (has) explained in detail وَمَا لَكُمْ أَلَّا تَأْكُلُوا مِمَّا ذُكِرَ اسْمُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ وَقَدْ فَصَّلَ لَكُمْ مَا حَرَّمَ عَلَيْكُمْ
(6:126:6) faṣṣalnā We have detailed وَهَٰذَا صِرَاطُ رَبِّكَ مُسْتَقِيمًا قَدْ فَصَّلْنَا الْآيَاتِ لِقَوْمٍ يَذَّكَّرُونَ
(7:32:23) nufaṣṣilu We explain كَذَٰلِكَ نُفَصِّلُ الْآيَاتِ لِقَوْمٍ يَعْلَمُونَ
(7:52:4) faṣṣalnāhu which We have explained وَلَقَدْ جِئْنَاهُمْ بِكِتَابٍ فَصَّلْنَاهُ عَلَىٰ عِلْمٍ
(7:174:2) nufaṣṣilu We explain وَكَذَٰلِكَ نُفَصِّلُ الْآيَاتِ وَلَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْجِعُونَ
(9:11:10) wanufaṣṣilu And We explain in detail فَإِخْوَانُكُمْ فِي الدِّينِ وَنُفَصِّلُ الْآيَاتِ لِقَوْمٍ يَعْلَمُونَ
(10:5:20) yufaṣṣilu He explains مَا خَلَقَ اللَّهُ ذَٰلِكَ إِلَّا بِالْحَقِّ يُفَصِّلُ الْآيَاتِ لِقَوْمٍ يَعْلَمُونَ
(10:24:40) nufaṣṣilu We explain كَذَٰلِكَ نُفَصِّلُ الْآيَاتِ لِقَوْمٍ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ
(11:1:6) fuṣṣilat explained in detail الر كِتَابٌ أُحْكِمَتْ آيَاتُهُ ثُمَّ فُصِّلَتْ مِنْ لَدُنْ حَكِيمٍ خَبِيرٍ
(13:2:21) yufaṣṣilu He details يُدَبِّرُ الْأَمْرَ يُفَصِّلُ الْآيَاتِ لَعَلَّكُمْ بِلِقَاءِ رَبِّكُمْ تُوقِنُونَ
(17:12:22) faṣṣalnāhu We have explained it وَلِتَعْلَمُوا عَدَدَ السِّنِينَ وَالْحِسَابَ وَكُلَّ شَيْءٍ فَصَّلْنَاهُ تَفْصِيلًا
(30:28:24) nufaṣṣilu We explain كَذَٰلِكَ نُفَصِّلُ الْآيَاتِ لِقَوْمٍ يَعْقِلُونَ
(41:3:2) fuṣṣilat are detailed كِتَابٌ فُصِّلَتْ آيَاتُهُ قُرْآنًا عَرَبِيًّا لِقَوْمٍ يَعْلَمُونَ
(41:44:7) fuṣṣilat are explained in detail وَلَوْ جَعَلْنَاهُ قُرْآنًا أَعْجَمِيًّا لَقَالُوا لَوْلَا فُصِّلَتْ آيَاتُهُ

The triliteral root fā ṣād lām (ف ص ل) occurs 43 times in the Quran, in nine derived forms:
five times as the form I verb faṣala (فَصَلَ)
17 times as the form II verb faṣṣala (فَصَّلَ)
three times as the noun fiṣāl (فِصَال)
nine times as the nominal faṣl (فَصْل)
once as the noun faṣīlat (فَصِيلَت)
once as the adjective mufaṣṣalāt (مُّفَصَّلَٰت)
once as the active participle fāṣilīn (فَٰصِلِين)
five times as the form II verbal noun tafṣīl (تَفْصِيل)
once as the form II passive participle mufaṣṣal (مُفَصَّل)
The translations below are brief glosses intended as a guide to meaning. An Arabic word may have a range of meanings depending on context. Click on a word for more linguistic information, or to suggestion a correction.

Verb (form I) - to set out, to depart, to judge
(2:249:2) faṣala set out فَلَمَّا فَصَلَ طَالُوتُ بِالْجُنُودِ قَالَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ مُبْتَلِيكُمْ بِنَهَرٍ
(12:94:2) faṣalati departed وَلَمَّا فَصَلَتِ الْعِيرُ قَالَ أَبُوهُمْ إِنِّي لَأَجِدُ رِيحَ يُوسُفَ
(22:17:13) yafṣilu will judge إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَفْصِلُ بَيْنَهُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ
(32:25:4) yafṣilu will judge إِنَّ رَبَّكَ هُوَ يَفْصِلُ بَيْنَهُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ فِيمَا كَانُوا فِيهِ يَخْتَلِفُونَ
(60:3:8) yafṣilu He will judge لَنْ تَنْفَعَكُمْ أَرْحَامُكُمْ وَلَا أَوْلَادُكُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ يَفْصِلُ بَيْنَكُمْ
Verb (form II) - to make clear, to explain in detail
(6:55:2) nufaṣṣilu We explain وَكَذَٰلِكَ نُفَصِّلُ الْآيَاتِ وَلِتَسْتَبِينَ سَبِيلُ الْمُجْرِمِينَ
(6:97:13) faṣṣalnā We have made clear قَدْ فَصَّلْنَا الْآيَاتِ لِقَوْمٍ يَعْلَمُونَ
(6:98:10) faṣṣalnā We have made clear فَمُسْتَقَرٌّ وَمُسْتَوْدَعٌ قَدْ فَصَّلْنَا الْآيَاتِ لِقَوْمٍ يَفْقَهُونَ
(6:119:11) faṣṣala He (has) explained in detail وَمَا لَكُمْ أَلَّا تَأْكُلُوا مِمَّا ذُكِرَ اسْمُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ وَقَدْ فَصَّلَ لَكُمْ مَا حَرَّمَ عَلَيْكُمْ
(6:126:6) faṣṣalnā We have detailed وَهَٰذَا صِرَاطُ رَبِّكَ مُسْتَقِيمًا قَدْ فَصَّلْنَا الْآيَاتِ لِقَوْمٍ يَذَّكَّرُونَ
(7:32:23) nufaṣṣilu We explain كَذَٰلِكَ نُفَصِّلُ الْآيَاتِ لِقَوْمٍ يَعْلَمُونَ
(7:52:4) faṣṣalnāhu which We have explained وَلَقَدْ جِئْنَاهُمْ بِكِتَابٍ فَصَّلْنَاهُ عَلَىٰ عِلْمٍ
(7:174:2) nufaṣṣilu We explain وَكَذَٰلِكَ نُفَصِّلُ الْآيَاتِ وَلَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْجِعُونَ
(9:11:10) wanufaṣṣilu And We explain in detail فَإِخْوَانُكُمْ فِي الدِّينِ وَنُفَصِّلُ الْآيَاتِ لِقَوْمٍ يَعْلَمُونَ
(10:5:20) yufaṣṣilu He explains مَا خَلَقَ اللَّهُ ذَٰلِكَ إِلَّا بِالْحَقِّ يُفَصِّلُ الْآيَاتِ لِقَوْمٍ يَعْلَمُونَ
(10:24:40) nufaṣṣilu We explain كَذَٰلِكَ نُفَصِّلُ الْآيَاتِ لِقَوْمٍ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ
(11:1:6) fuṣṣilat explained in detail الر كِتَابٌ أُحْكِمَتْ آيَاتُهُ ثُمَّ فُصِّلَتْ مِنْ لَدُنْ حَكِيمٍ خَبِيرٍ
(13:2:21) yufaṣṣilu He details يُدَبِّرُ الْأَمْرَ يُفَصِّلُ الْآيَاتِ لَعَلَّكُمْ بِلِقَاءِ رَبِّكُمْ تُوقِنُونَ
(17:12:22) faṣṣalnāhu We have explained it وَلِتَعْلَمُوا عَدَدَ السِّنِينَ وَالْحِسَابَ وَكُلَّ شَيْءٍ فَصَّلْنَاهُ تَفْصِيلًا
(30:28:24) nufaṣṣilu We explain كَذَٰلِكَ نُفَصِّلُ الْآيَاتِ لِقَوْمٍ يَعْقِلُونَ
(41:3:2) fuṣṣilat are detailed كِتَابٌ فُصِّلَتْ آيَاتُهُ قُرْآنًا عَرَبِيًّا لِقَوْمٍ يَعْلَمُونَ
(41:44:7) fuṣṣilat are explained in detail وَلَوْ جَعَلْنَاهُ قُرْآنًا أَعْجَمِيًّا لَقَالُوا لَوْلَا فُصِّلَتْ آيَاتُهُ
Noun
(2:233:36) fiṣālan weaning فَإِنْ أَرَادَا فِصَالًا عَنْ تَرَاضٍ مِنْهُمَا وَتَشَاوُرٍ فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْهِمَا
(31:14:9) wafiṣāluhu and his weaning حَمَلَتْهُ أُمُّهُ وَهْنًا عَلَىٰ وَهْنٍ وَفِصَالُهُ فِي عَامَيْنِ
(46:15:11) wafiṣāluhu and (the) weaning of him حَمَلَتْهُ أُمُّهُ كُرْهًا وَوَضَعَتْهُ كُرْهًا وَحَمْلُهُ وَفِصَالُهُ ثَلَاثُونَ شَهْرًا
Nominal
(1) Noun
(37:21:3) l-faṣli (of) Judgment هَٰذَا يَوْمُ الْفَصْلِ الَّذِي كُنْتُمْ بِهِ تُكَذِّبُونَ
(38:20:5) wafaṣla and decisive وَشَدَدْنَا مُلْكَهُ وَآتَيْنَاهُ الْحِكْمَةَ وَفَصْلَ الْخِطَابِ
(42:21:15) l-faṣli decisive وَلَوْلَا كَلِمَةُ الْفَصْلِ لَقُضِيَ بَيْنَهُمْ وَإِنَّ الظَّالِمِينَ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ
(44:40:3) l-faṣli (the) Day of Judgment إِنَّ يَوْمَ الْفَصْلِ مِيقَاتُهُمْ أَجْمَعِينَ
(77:13:2) l-faṣli (of) Judgment لِيَوْمِ الْفَصْلِ
(77:14:5) l-faṣli (of) the Judgment وَمَا أَدْرَاكَ مَا يَوْمُ الْفَصْلِ
(77:38:3) l-faṣli (of) Judgment هَٰذَا يَوْمُ الْفَصْلِ جَمَعْنَاكُمْ وَالْأَوَّلِينَ
(78:17:3) l-faṣli (of) the Judgment إِنَّ يَوْمَ الْفَصْلِ كَانَ مِيقَاتًا
(2) Adjective
(86:13:3) faṣlun decisive إِنَّهُ لَقَوْلٌ فَصْلٌ
Noun
(70:13:1) wafaṣīlatihi And his nearest kindred وَفَصِيلَتِهِ الَّتِي تُؤْوِيهِ
Adjective
(7:133:9) mufaṣṣalātin manifest فَأَرْسَلْنَا عَلَيْهِمُ الطُّوفَانَ وَالْجَرَادَ وَالْقُمَّلَ وَالضَّفَادِعَ وَالدَّمَ آيَاتٍ مُفَصَّلَاتٍ
Active participle
(6:57:22) l-fāṣilīna (of) the Deciders إِنِ الْحُكْمُ إِلَّا لِلَّهِ يَقُصُّ الْحَقَّ وَهُوَ خَيْرُ الْفَاصِلِينَ
Verbal noun (form II)
(6:154:9) watafṣīlan and an explanation ثُمَّ آتَيْنَا مُوسَى الْكِتَابَ تَمَامًا عَلَى الَّذِي أَحْسَنَ وَتَفْصِيلًا لِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ
(7:145:9) watafṣīlan and explanation وَكَتَبْنَا لَهُ فِي الْأَلْوَاحِ مِنْ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ مَوْعِظَةً وَتَفْصِيلًا لِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ
(10:37:15) watafṣīla and a detailed explanation وَلَٰكِنْ تَصْدِيقَ الَّذِي بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ وَتَفْصِيلَ الْكِتَابِ لَا رَيْبَ فِيهِ
(12:111:17) watafṣīla and a detailed explanation وَلَٰكِنْ تَصْدِيقَ الَّذِي بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ وَتَفْصِيلَ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ
(17:12:23) tafṣīlan (in) detail وَلِتَعْلَمُوا عَدَدَ السِّنِينَ وَالْحِسَابَ وَكُلَّ شَيْءٍ فَصَّلْنَاهُ تَفْصِيلًا
Passive participle (form II)
(6:114:10) mufaṣṣalan explained in detail وَهُوَ الَّذِي أَنْزَلَ إِلَيْكُمُ الْكِتَابَ مُفَصَّلًا


وَالْبَلَدُ الطَّيِّبُ يَخْرُجُ نَبَاتُهُ بِإِذْنِ رَبِّهِ ۖ وَالَّذِي خَبُثَ لَا يَخْرُجُ إِلَّا نَكِدًا 
كَذَ‌ٰلِكَ نُصَرِّفُ الْآيَاتِ لِقَوْمٍ يَشْكُرُونَ

[Al-Qur’an 7:58, translator: Sahih International] And the good land - its vegetation emerges by permission of its Lord; but that which is bad - nothing emerges except sparsely, with difficulty. Thus do We diversify the signs for a people who are grateful. 


(6:46:19) nuṣarrifu We explain انْظُرْ كَيْفَ نُصَرِّفُ الْآيَاتِ ثُمَّ هُمْ يَصْدِفُونَ
(6:65:24) nuṣarrifu We explain انْظُرْ كَيْفَ نُصَرِّفُ الْآيَاتِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَفْقَهُونَ
(6:105:2) nuṣarrifu We explain وَكَذَٰلِكَ نُصَرِّفُ الْآيَاتِ وَلِيَقُولُوا دَرَسْتَ
(7:58:14) nuṣarrifu We explain كَذَٰلِكَ نُصَرِّفُ الْآيَاتِ لِقَوْمٍ يَشْكُرُونَ
(17:41:2) ṣarrafnā We have explained وَلَقَدْ صَرَّفْنَا فِي هَٰذَا الْقُرْآنِ لِيَذَّكَّرُوا
(17:89:2) ṣarrafnā We have explained وَلَقَدْ صَرَّفْنَا لِلنَّاسِ فِي هَٰذَا الْقُرْآنِ مِنْ كُلِّ مَثَلٍ
(18:54:2) ṣarrafnā We have explained وَلَقَدْ صَرَّفْنَا فِي هَٰذَا الْقُرْآنِ لِلنَّاسِ مِنْ كُلِّ مَثَلٍ
(20:113:5) waṣarrafnā and We have explained وَكَذَٰلِكَ أَنْزَلْنَاهُ قُرْآنًا عَرَبِيًّا وَصَرَّفْنَا فِيهِ مِنَ الْوَعِيدِ
(25:50:2) ṣarrafnāhu We have distributed it وَلَقَدْ صَرَّفْنَاهُ بَيْنَهُمْ لِيَذَّكَّرُوا
(46:27:7) waṣarrafnā and We have diversified وَصَرَّفْنَا الْآيَاتِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْجِعُونَ

The triliteral root ṣād rā fā (ص ر ف) occurs 30 times in the Quran, in seven derived forms:
14 times as the form I verb ṣarafa (صَرَفَ)
10 times as the form II verb ṣarraf (صَرَّفْ)
once as the form VII verb inṣarafu (ٱنصَرَفُ)
once as the noun ṣarf (صَرْف)
once as the noun maṣrif (مَصْرِف)
once as the passive participle maṣrūf (مَصْرُوف)
twice as the form II verbal noun taṣrīf (تَصْرِيف)
The translations below are brief glosses intended as a guide to meaning. An Arabic word may have a range of meanings depending on context. Click on a word for more linguistic information, or to suggestion a correction.

Verb (form I) - to divert, to turn away
(3:152:30) ṣarafakum He diverted you ثُمَّ صَرَفَكُمْ عَنْهُمْ لِيَبْتَلِيَكُمْ وَلَقَدْ عَفَا عَنْكُمْ
(6:16:2) yuṣ'raf is averted مَنْ يُصْرَفْ عَنْهُ يَوْمَئِذٍ فَقَدْ رَحِمَهُ وَذَٰلِكَ الْفَوْزُ الْمُبِينُ
(7:47:2) ṣurifat are turned وَإِذَا صُرِفَتْ أَبْصَارُهُمْ تِلْقَاءَ أَصْحَابِ النَّارِ قَالُوا رَبَّنَا لَا تَجْعَلْنَا مَعَ الْقَوْمِ الظَّالِمِينَ
(7:146:1) sa-aṣrifu I will turn away سَأَصْرِفُ عَنْ آيَاتِيَ الَّذِينَ يَتَكَبَّرُونَ فِي الْأَرْضِ
(9:127:15) ṣarafa Allah has turned away صَرَفَ اللَّهُ قُلُوبَهُمْ بِأَنَّهُمْ قَوْمٌ لَا يَفْقَهُونَ
(10:32:11) tuṣ'rafūna (are) you turned away فَمَاذَا بَعْدَ الْحَقِّ إِلَّا الضَّلَالُ فَأَنَّىٰ تُصْرَفُونَ
(12:24:12) linaṣrifa that We might avert كَذَٰلِكَ لِنَصْرِفَ عَنْهُ السُّوءَ وَالْفَحْشَاءَ
(12:33:10) taṣrif You turn away وَإِلَّا تَصْرِفْ عَنِّي كَيْدَهُنَّ أَصْبُ إِلَيْهِنَّ
(12:34:4) faṣarafa and turned away فَاسْتَجَابَ لَهُ رَبُّهُ فَصَرَفَ عَنْهُ كَيْدَهُنَّ
(24:43:30) wayaṣrifuhu and averts it فَيُصِيبُ بِهِ مَنْ يَشَاءُ وَيَصْرِفُهُ عَنْ مَنْ يَشَاءُ
(25:65:4) iṣ'rif Avert وَالَّذِينَ يَقُولُونَ رَبَّنَا اصْرِفْ عَنَّا عَذَابَ جَهَنَّمَ
(39:6:36) tuṣ'rafūna are you turning away ذَٰلِكُمُ اللَّهُ رَبُّكُمْ لَهُ الْمُلْكُ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ فَأَنَّىٰ تُصْرَفُونَ
(40:69:10) yuṣ'rafūna they are turned away أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ يُجَادِلُونَ فِي آيَاتِ اللَّهِ أَنَّىٰ يُصْرَفُونَ
(46:29:2) ṣarafnā We directed وَإِذْ صَرَفْنَا إِلَيْكَ نَفَرًا مِنَ الْجِنِّ يَسْتَمِعُونَ الْقُرْآنَ
Verb (form II) - to explain
(6:46:19) nuṣarrifu We explain انْظُرْ كَيْفَ نُصَرِّفُ الْآيَاتِ ثُمَّ هُمْ يَصْدِفُونَ
(6:65:24) nuṣarrifu We explain انْظُرْ كَيْفَ نُصَرِّفُ الْآيَاتِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَفْقَهُونَ
(6:105:2) nuṣarrifu We explain وَكَذَٰلِكَ نُصَرِّفُ الْآيَاتِ وَلِيَقُولُوا دَرَسْتَ
(7:58:14) nuṣarrifu We explain كَذَٰلِكَ نُصَرِّفُ الْآيَاتِ لِقَوْمٍ يَشْكُرُونَ
(17:41:2) ṣarrafnā We have explained وَلَقَدْ صَرَّفْنَا فِي هَٰذَا الْقُرْآنِ لِيَذَّكَّرُوا
(17:89:2) ṣarrafnā We have explained وَلَقَدْ صَرَّفْنَا لِلنَّاسِ فِي هَٰذَا الْقُرْآنِ مِنْ كُلِّ مَثَلٍ
(18:54:2) ṣarrafnā We have explained وَلَقَدْ صَرَّفْنَا فِي هَٰذَا الْقُرْآنِ لِلنَّاسِ مِنْ كُلِّ مَثَلٍ
(20:113:5) waṣarrafnā and We have explained وَكَذَٰلِكَ أَنْزَلْنَاهُ قُرْآنًا عَرَبِيًّا وَصَرَّفْنَا فِيهِ مِنَ الْوَعِيدِ
(25:50:2) ṣarrafnāhu We have distributed it وَلَقَدْ صَرَّفْنَاهُ بَيْنَهُمْ لِيَذَّكَّرُوا
(46:27:7) waṣarrafnā and We have diversified وَصَرَّفْنَا الْآيَاتِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْجِعُونَ
Verb (form VII) - to turn away
(9:127:14) inṣarafū they turn away ثُمَّ انْصَرَفُوا صَرَفَ اللَّهُ قُلُوبَهُمْ
Noun
(25:19:7) ṣarfan (to) avert فَقَدْ كَذَّبُوكُمْ بِمَا تَقُولُونَ فَمَا تَسْتَطِيعُونَ صَرْفًا وَلَا نَصْرًا
Noun
(18:53:10) maṣrifan a way of escape فَظَنُّوا أَنَّهُمْ مُوَاقِعُوهَا وَلَمْ يَجِدُوا عَنْهَا مَصْرِفًا
Passive participle
(11:8:15) maṣrūfan (will be) averted أَلَا يَوْمَ يَأْتِيهِمْ لَيْسَ مَصْرُوفًا عَنْهُمْ
Verbal noun (form II)
(2:164:34) wataṣrīfi and directing وَتَصْرِيفِ الرِّيَاحِ وَالسَّحَابِ الْمُسَخَّرِ بَيْنَ السَّمَاءِ وَالْأَرْضِ لَآيَاتٍ لِقَوْمٍ يَعْقِلُونَ
(45:5:16) wataṣrīfi and (in) directing وَتَصْرِيفِ الرِّيَاحِ آيَاتٌ لِقَوْمٍ يَعْقِلُونَ



References



Multiple Translations:


Sunday, March 8, 2015

Fuel of Hell: Humans and Stones



Abstract
The Quran verse 2:24, describes humans and stones as fuel of The Fire prepared for the disbelievers. The Quran also mentions that though those in The Fire will wish death or escape, yet they will have no choice but to endure the punishment continuously. In this Concept, occurrences in nature of stones and creatures under high temperature and pressure, and other unusual circumstances, has been explored, as an attempt to imagine the possibility of humans enduring The Fire while being a renewable fuel source.   



Full Text
The Quran repeatedly warns of the Fire, informing us in various way that our performance in the life of Earth will be a determining factor in our fate in the Hereafter. In verse 2:24, humans and stones are described as fuel of The Fire prepared for the disbelievers. A pertinent example of burning stones is to be found in the volcanic eruptions and the asthenosphere below the Earth’s crust. Some life-forms are known to appear/survive in extremely hot temperatures (up to 120 degrees centigrade), as found in cooling down lava. Though life on Earth is carbon-based, scientists are also theorising about silicon-based and/or other lifeforms elsewhere in the cosmos. Diatoms and other sources of biogenic silica are an important pointer in this direction. Verses 56:60-62 speak of an unknown life-form in the new creation. Theory about the last stages of stellar evolution and the role of silicon vis-a-vis verses 56:75-76 also merits consideration. Furthermore, chirality of carbon-based compounds in our body and references to right and left segregation in the Hereafter may have some pointers to help understand the concepts of the Hereafter. 

فَإِن لَّمْ تَفْعَلُوا وَلَن تَفْعَلُوا فَاتَّقُوا النَّارَ الَّتِي وَقُودُهَا النَّاسُ وَالْحِجَارَةُ ۖ أُعِدَّتْ لِلْكَافِرِينَ

[Al-Qur’an 2:24, translator: Sahih International] But if you do not - and you will never be able to - then fear the Fire, whose fuel is men and stones, prepared for the disbelievers.

[Al-Qur’an 2:24, translator: Pickthal]  And if ye do it not - and ye can never do it - then guard yourselves against the Fire prepared for disbelievers, whose fuel is of men and stones.


Renewable Fuel
A key word used in verse 2:24 is fuel. Fuel, used as a noun, is defined as something that is burned to produce heat or power, and as a verb as which causes something to burn more intensely. In several places in the Quran, the life of the Hereafter is termed immortal. This implies that the human-sourced fuel will be renewable, as informed by the following verse:
[Al-Qur’an 4:56, translator: Sahih International] Indeed, those who disbelieve in Our verses - We will drive them into a Fire. Every time their skins are roasted through We will replace them with other skins so they may taste the punishment. Indeed, Allah is ever Exalted in Might and Wise.   


This prayer employs the word ‘gharaman’ (غَرَامًا) to convey the concept of continuous process of relentless burning: 
[Al-Qur’an 25:65, translation: Literal (Word by Word)] And those who say, "Our Lord! Avert from us the punishment (of) Hell. Indeed, its punishment is inseparable,


Burning Stones 
A pertinent example of burning stones is to be found in the volcanic eruptions and the asthenosphere below the Earth’s crust. 

Volcanic eruptions, known as lava, are molten (melted) rock. A volcano is a vent or hole in the Earth’s surface through which the lava escapes from underground. There are speculation whether this molten rock comes from the core of the Earth or the Asthenosphere, which is relatively closer to the surface of the Earth. 

Though scientists have not yet been able to directly study the interior of the Earth, based on the available data, scientists infer that below the Earth’s crust, at a depth of about 60 miles, is a hot, plastic-like layer known as the asthenosphere. ‘This property is caused by the interaction of temperature and pressure on asthenospheric materials. Any rock will melt if its temperature is raised to a high enough temperature. However, the melting point of any rock is also a function of the pressure exerted on the rock. In general, as the pressure is increased on a material, its melting point increases… The fragile melting point pressure balance in the asthenosphere is reflected in the estimate made by some geologists that up to 10% of the asthenospheric material may actually be molten. The rest is so close to being molten that relatively modest changes in pressure or temperature may cause further melting… The asthenosphere is heated by contact with hot materials that make up the mesosphere beneath it.’   


Seven Gates
لَهَا سَبْعَةُ أَبْوَابٍ لِّكُلِّ بَابٍ مِّنْهُمْ جُزْءٌ مَّقْسُومٌ

[Al-Qur’an 15:44, translator: Sahih International] It has seven gates; for every gate is of them a portion designated."

A video footage, published on Feb 20, 2015, of Ambrym’s crater, Marum, located along the Ring of Fire in the Vanuatu Archipelago, home to one of only seven permanent lava lakes in the world: http://adventureblog.nationalgeographic.com/2015/02/20/video-adventurer-and-drones-go-into-the-volcano-for-science 

[Al-Qur’an 7:40, translator: Shakir] Surely (as for) those who reject Our communications and turn away from them haughtily, the doors of heaven shall not be opened for them, nor shall they enter the garden until the camel pass through the eye of the needle; and thus do We reward the guilty. 


Creatures that can survive in extremely hot temperatures 
Scientists have discovered creatures that can survive extreme environments, be it temperature, radiation level, scarcity of oxygen, water and food, to the vacuum of outer space. What is more astounding is that there are some creatures that not only survive, but also thrive in extreme environments. Completely new species have been found to emerge near an active volcano and are nourished by it.  The following are some excerpts from the internet. 
‘A hyperthermophile is an organism that thrives in extremely hot environments— from 60 °C (140 °F) upwards. An optimal temperature for the existence of hyperthermophiles is above 80 °C (176 °F). Hyperthermophiles are a subset of extremophiles, micro-organisms within the domain Archaea, although some bacteria are able to tolerate temperatures of around 100 °C (212 °F), as well. Some bacteria can live at temperatures higher than 100 °C at large depths in sea where water does not boil because of high pressure. Many hyperthermophiles are also able to withstand other environmental extremes such as high acidity or radiation levels… An extraordinary heat-tolerant hyperthermophile is the recently discovered Strain 121 which has been able to double its population during 24 hours in an autoclave at 121 °C (hence its name); the current record growth temperature is 122 °C, for Methanopyrus kandleri. Although no hyperthermophile has yet been discovered living at temperatures above 122 °C, their existence is very possible (Strain 121 survived being heated to 130 °C for two hours, but was not able to reproduce until it had been transferred into a fresh growth medium, at a relatively cooler 103 °C)… The protein molecules in the hyperthermophiles exhibit hyperthermostability—that is, they can maintain structural stability (and therefore function) at high temperatures.’
‘Tardigrades can survive in extreme environments. For example, they can withstand temperatures from just above absolute zero to well above the boiling point of water (100°C), pressures about six times greater than those found in the deepest ocean trenches, ionizing radiation at doses hundreds of times higher than the lethal dose for a human, and the vacuum of outer space. They can go without food or water for more than 10 years, drying out to the point where they are 3% or less water, only to rehydrate, forage, and reproduce.’ 
‘Outer space – tardigrades are the first known animal to survive in space. On September 2007, dehydrated tardigrades were taken into low Earth orbit on the FOTON-M3 mission carrying the BIOPAN astrobiology payload. For 10 days, groups of tardigrades were exposed to the hard vacuum of outer space, or vacuum and solar UV radiation. After being rehydrated back on Earth, over 68% of the subjects protected from high-energy UV radiation revived within 30 minutes following rehydration, but subsequent mortality was high; many of these produced viable embryos. In contrast, dehydrated samples exposed to the combined effect of vacuum and full solar UV radiation had significantly reduced survival, with only three subjects of Milnesium tardigradum surviving. In May 2011, Italian scientists sent tardigrades on board the International Space Station along with other extremophiles on STS-134, the final flight of Space Shuttle Endeavour. Their conclusion was that microgravity and cosmic radiation "did not significantly affect survival of tardigrades in flight, confirming that tardigrades represent a useful animal for space research.” In November 2011, they were among the organisms to be sent by the US-based Planetary Society on the Russian Fobos-Grunt mission's Living Interplanetary Flight Experiment to Phobos; however, the launch failed. It remains unclear whether tardigrade specimens survived the failed launch.’
‘An active underwater volcano near Guam has become a hotspot for a booming population of ocean critters, despite continuous eruptions at the site. The volcano is so active that it has recently built a new cone that reaches 131 feet high and extends to 984 feet wide, said scientists who started making observations there in 2004 and 2006. "That's as tall as a 12-story building and as wide as a full city block," said Bill Chadwick, a volcanologist at Oregon State University. "As the cone has grown, we've seen a significant increase in the population of animals that lives atop the volcano.” … International researchers want to figure out if there's a direct connection between the growing volcano activity and the increase in marine life there, such as shrimp, crab, limpets and barnacles. Some of those creatures represent completely new species, the scientists say. "They're specially adapted to their environment and are thriving in harsh chemical conditions that would be toxic to normal marine life," Chadwick noted. "Life here is actually nourished by the erupting volcano.” The hydrothermal venting from the volcano allows bacterial filaments to coat the rocks and provides a growing food source for many of the nearby creatures, said Verena Tunnicliffe, a biologist from the University of Victoria in Canada.’  


There is not one of you but shall approach it! 
[Quran 19:65-74, Translator: Pickthall] Lord of the heavens and the earth and all that is between them! Therefor, worship thou Him and be thou steadfast in His service. Knowest thou one that can be named along with Him? And man saith: When I am dead, shall I forsooth be brought forth alive? Doth not man remember that We created him before, when he was naught? And, by thy Lord, verily We shall assemble them and the devils, then We shall bring them, crouching, around hell. Then We shall pluck out from every sect whichever of them was most stubborn in rebellion to the Beneficent. And surely We are Best Aware of those most worthy to be burned therein. There is not one of you but shall approach it. That is a fixed ordinance of thy Lord. Then We shall rescue those who kept from evil, and leave the evil-doers crouching there. And when Our clear revelations are recited unto them, those who disbelieve say unto those who believe: Which of the two parties (yours or ours) is better in position, and more imposing as an army? How many a generation have We destroyed before them, who were more imposing in respect of gear and outward seeming!


References

Fuel 


Earth: Volcanoes, Asthenosphere & Plate Tectonics 

Creatures living in Extreme Environments


Last updated on: March 20, 2016

Wednesday, March 4, 2015

Orientation: Right or Left


Abstract 
Regarding the Day of Judgement and the Hereafter, the Quran provides vivid details in terms of left and right orientations. There are many teachings attributed to Prophet Mohammad (s.a.w. (may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him)) regarding the preferred usage of right or left hand  or foot. 

Preferences for right and left orientation are also found in nature. We can attempt to contemplate upon the guidance with concepts of Chirality found across all sciences.

Noor is another term used in connection with the right-oriented. Luminescence, and particularly bioluminescence found in several organisms helps comprehend this concept. 

Though we may still not comprehend it fully, let alone draw any conclusions, however it opens our minds to possibilities beyond the ordinary, and helps us to appreciate the wisdom of the teachings, and more readily accept guidance on faith. 


Full Text
The Quran and the Sunnah both contain many references to right and left orientation 

Regarding the Day of Judgement and the Hereafter, the Quran provides vivid details in terms of left and right orientations: 

  • records being given either in the right (17:71, 69:19, 84:7) or in the left (69:25) or behind the back (84:10) 
  • the Companions of the Right (56:8, 74:39) and the Companions of the Left (56:9); 
  • the Noor (light) of the believers will proceed in front of them and on their right (57:12, 66:8) while the hypocrites seeking ‘noor’ will be told to seek it behind their back (57:13); 

There are many teachings attributed to Prophet Mohammad (s.a.w. (may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him)) regarding which hand to use for what, or which foot to step with first, or which side to sleep upon. 

Limited by our knowledge and understanding, we either take the ayaat and ahadith about the unseen on faith, or do not take them seriously. We can attempt to contemplate upon these with the concepts of chirality and luminescence. Preferences for right and left orientation are also found in nature, and even in the DNA. Many creatures can emit light from their bodies.  Though we may still not comprehend it fully, however it opens our minds to possibilities beyond the ordinary, and helps us to appreciate the wisdom of the teachings, and more readily accept guidance on faith.  

Quranic Ayaat: Results in right or left 
[Al-Qur’an, translator: Sahih International]
[17:71] [Mention, O Muhammad], the Day We will call forth every people with their record [of deeds]. Then whoever is given his record in his right hand - those will read their records, and injustice will not be done to them, [even] as much as a thread [inside the date seed].
[69:19] So as for he who is given his record in his right hand, he will say, "Here, read my record! 
[69:25] But as for he who is given his record in his left hand, he will say, "Oh, I wish I had not been given my record 
[84:7-8] Then as for he who is given his record in his right hand, He will be judged with an easy account
[84:10-11] But as for he who is given his record behind his back, He will cry out for destruction 

Quranic Ayaat: Companions of the Right vs Companions of the Left 
[Al-Qur’an, translator: Sahih International]
56:1 When the Occurrence occurs, 
56:7 And you become [of] three kinds: 
56:8 Then the companions of the right - what are the companions of the right
56:9 And the companions of the left - what are the companions of the left
56:10 And the forerunners, the forerunners

DNA Orientation
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nucleic_acid_double_helix#Helix_geometries
At least three DNA conformations are believed to be found in nature, A-DNA, B-DNA, and Z-DNA. The B form ... is believed to predominate in cells ... The double helix makes one complete turn about its axis every 10.4-10.5 base pairs in solution. This frequency of twist (termed the helical pitch) depends largely on stacking forces that each base exerts on its neighbours in the chain. The absolute configuration of the bases determines the direction of the helical curve for a given conformation.
...
Structural features of the three major forms of DNA[31][32][33]
Geometry attributeA-DNAB-DNAZ-DNA
Helix sense
right-handedright-handedleft-handed


Image Attribution: By Mauroesguerroto - Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=35919357 

Chirality 
Chirality is a property of asymmetry important in several branches of science. The word chirality is derived from the Greek, χειρ (kheir), "hand", a familiar chiral object.

An object or a system is chiral if it is distinguishable from its mirror image; that is, it cannot be superposed onto it. Conversely, a mirror image of an achiral object, such as a sphere, cannot be distinguished from the object. A chiral object and its mirror image are called enantiomorphs (Greek opposite forms) or, when referring to molecules, enantiomers. A non-chiral object is called achiral (sometimes also amphichiral) and can be superposed on its mirror image. 

Human hands are perhaps the most universally recognized example of chirality: The left hand is a non-superimposable mirror image of the right hand; no matter how the two hands are oriented, it is impossible for all the major features of both hands to coincide. This difference in symmetry becomes obvious if someone attempts to shake the right hand of a person using his left hand, or if a left-handed glove is placed on a right hand. In mathematics chirality is the property of a figure that is not identical to its mirror image.

In mathematics, a figure is chiral (and said to have chirality) if it cannot be mapped to its mirror image by rotations and translations alone. For example, a right shoe is different from a left shoe, and clockwise is different from anti-clockwise.

In physics, chirality may be found in the spin of a particle, which may be used to define a handedness (aka chirality) for that particle. 

Electromagnetic wave propagation as handedness is wave polarization and described in terms of helicity (occurs as a helix). Polarization of an electromagnetic wave, is the property that describes the orientation, i.e., the time-varying, direction (vector), and amplitude of the electric field vector. 

In anatomy, chirality is found in the imperfect mirror-image symmetry of many kinds of animal bodies. Organisms such as gastropods exhibit chirality in their coiled shells, resulting in an asymmetrical appearance. Over 90% of gastropod species have dextral (right-handed) shells in their coiling, but a small minority of species and genera are virtually always sinistral (left-handed). A very few species (for example Amphidromus perversus) show an equal mixture of dextral and sinistral individuals.

In humans, chirality (also referred to as handedness or laterality) is an attribute of humans defined by their unequal distribution of fine motor skill between the left and right hands. An individual who is more dexterous with the right hand is called right-handed, and one who is more skilled with the left is said to be left-handed. Chirality is also seen in the study of facial asymmetry.

In flatfish, the Summer flounder or fluke are left-eyed, while halibut are right-eyed. 

In chemistry, chirality usually refers to molecules. Two mirror images of a chiral molecule are called enantiomers or optical isomers. Pairs of enantiomers are often designated as "right-" and “left-handed." Molecular chirality is of interest because of its application to stereochemistry in inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry, physical chemistry, biochemistry, and supramolecular chemistry. 


Two enantiomers of a generic amino acid that is chiral 


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Chirality is an important property of life-supporting carbon compounds. Only right-handed carbohydrates and left-handed amino acids are metabolically active in Earth's organisms. Enzymes, which regulate a variety of biological processes, have the ability to recognize the desired chirality of a substrate. This enhances the versitality of carbon, though chrality is not limited to carbon compounds and occurs in most macromolecules. 

———
Depicting lateral movement 
‘…Inspection of the availability of italic fonts in Hebrew indicates an additional artistic convention for conveying motion, based on a fundamental bias, yet to be confirmed, for people to expect to see, or prefer to see, lateral movement (real or implied) in a left to right direction, rather than a right to left direction. Evidence for such a bias is found in photographs of a range of animate and inanimate items archived on Google Images. Whereas a rightward bias is found for photographs of animate and inanimate items in motion (the more so, the faster the motion being conveyed), either no bias or a leftward bias is found for the same items in static pose.’ 

Quranic Verses: Noor (light)
[Al-Qur’an 57:12-13, translator: Sahih International] On the Day you see the believing men and believing women, their light proceeding before them and on their right, [it will be said], "Your good tidings today are [of] gardens beneath which rivers flow, wherein you will abide eternally." That is what is the great attainment. On the [same] Day the hypocrite men and hypocrite women will say to those who believed, "Wait for us that we may acquire some of your light." It will be said, "Go back behind you and seek light." And a wall will be placed between them with a door, its interior containing mercy, but on the outside of it is torment. 

[Al-Qur’an 66:8, translator: Sahih International] O you who have believed, repent to Allah with sincere repentance. Perhaps your Lord will remove from you your misdeeds and admit you into gardens beneath which rivers flow [on] the Day when Allah will not disgrace the Prophet and those who believed with him. Their light will proceed before them and on their right; they will say, "Our Lord, perfect for us our light and forgive us. Indeed, You are over all things competent."

Luminescence
Luminescence is emission of light by a substance not resulting from heat; it is thus a form of cold body radiation. It can be caused by chemical reactions, electrical energy, subatomic motions, or stress on a crystal. This distinguishes luminescence from incandescence, which is light emitted by a substance as a result of heating. 
Bioluminescence is the production and emission of light by a living organism. It is a form of chemiluminescence. Bioluminescence occurs widely in marine vertebrates and invertebrates, as well as in some fungi, microorganisms including some bioluminescent bacteria and terrestrial invertebrates such as fireflies. In some animals, the light is produced by symbiotic organisms such as Vibrio bacteria. 
Bioluminescence has several functions in different taxa… It is much easier for researchers to detect that a species is able to produce light than to analyse the chemical mechanisms or to prove what function the light serves. In some cases the function is unknown, as with species in three families of earthworm (Oligochaeta), such as Diplocardia longa where the coelomic fluid produces light when the animal moves.
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0006256 
The human body literally glimmers. The intensity of the light emitted by the body is 1000 times lower than the sensitivity of our naked eyes. Ultraweak photon emission is known as the energy released as light through the changes in energy metabolism. 


Related Quranic Ayaat: 

[Al-Qur’an, translator: Sahih International]
56:60-62 We have decreed death among you, and We are not to be outdone In that We will change your likenesses and produce you in that [form] which you do not know. And you have already known the first creation, so will you not remember?

Our Record
[Al-Qur’an 17:12-15, translator: Sahih International] And We have made the night and day two signs, and We erased the sign of the night and made the sign of the day visible that you may seek bounty from your Lord and may know the number of years and the account [of time]. And everything We have set out in detail. And [for] every person We have imposed his fate upon his neck, and We will produce for him on the Day of Resurrection a record which he will encounter spread open.  [It will be said], "Read your record. Sufficient is yourself against you this Day as accountant.” Whoever is guided is only guided for [the benefit of] his soul. And whoever errs only errs against it. And no bearer of burdens will bear the burden of another. And never would We punish until We sent a messenger. 

[Al-Qur’an 56:83, translator: Literal (word by word)] Then why not when it reaches the throat, And you (at) that time look on, And We (are) nearer to him than you but you (do) not see, Then why not, if you are not to be recompensed, Bring it back, if you are truthful. 



Last updated: October 5, 2017