[Al-Quran 50:6-8] Have they not looked at the heaven above them - how We structured it and adorned it and how it has no rifts? And the earth - We spread it out and cast therein firmly set mountains and made grow therein [something] of every beautiful kind, Giving insight and a reminder for every servant who turns [to Allah].

Thursday, October 23, 2014

Creation

Related posts:

Qur’an [79:27], questions: ‘Are you a more difficult creation or is the heaven? Allah constructed it.’ and Qur'an [3:190] states that ‘Indeed, in the creation of the heavens and the earth and the alternation of the night and the day are signs for those of understanding.’ 

Three verses of the Qur’an [6:91, 22:74, 39:67] state that the unbelievers have made no just estimate of Allah as is due to Him: Allah [i] has indeed sent down the scriptures, [ii] is strong and able to carry out His Will, and [iii] on the Day of Resurrection, the whole of the earth will be in His grip, and the heavens will be rolled up in His right hand.

Creation according to Quran 

Reading together and summarising the various verses pertaining to creation in the Quran, it appears to me that there are two phases of creation: the primary phase of six days (or periods) where the Earth and Heaven were created; then the secondary phase when the already created Earth and Heaven were joined together, and then the Earth and Seven Heavens were evolved, with their physical laws. The following sequence emerges: 
Primary Phase: Allah created the Heavens and the Earth in six days: the Earth was created in two days and made to grow meaningfully in four days. Meanwhile, the Heaven was like smoke. Then, He established Himself over the throne (started governing it).
Secondary Phase: the Heaven and Earth were ordered to come together as one. Then, the Heaven was raised and divided/layered into seven Heavens, and each assigned its laws. The Earth was expanded and made habitable. 

A verse specifically mentions that as Allah created the seven Heavens, He also created a similar number of Earths, and that Allah’s command descends through them. Another verse informs us that we can never escape the diameters of the heavens without permission/authority. The Quran repeatedly states that Allah is the Lord of the Worlds. 

Two verses inform us that a Day can be of any length and varies from measure to measure. Many verses inform us of a Day to come, and that when we will be asked about how long we stayed on Earth, we will say a day or a part of it. 

Creation Myths and Theories 

Most religions have their own creation myths, some similar, some quite different. The Bible describes creation in six days. In Hindu cosmogony, the universe is endlessly created, destroyed and recreated in a continuous cycle. Buddhist cosmology does not speak of origin but informs of 31 planes of existence. 

Scientists have also long been theorising about the Universe’s origins, with the Big Bang and Steady State theories being main contenders during the last century. With Einstein’s theories of Relativity (SR and GR), the concept of the Fabric of Space-Time emerged. Lately, Quantum Mechanics (QM) and String Theory have led to the concept of multiple dimensions. The Multiverse theory, the Many Worlds Interpretation (MWI), the concept of different physics in each multiverse,  are being popularly debated. The Conformal Cyclic Cosmology model proposes that the universe iterates through infinite cycles.

While Quran and Bible both state that the Heavens and Earth were created in six days, according to Hindu cosmogony, creation cycles are measured in billions of years. Modern science calculates the age of the Universe at about 14 billion years, and the Earth to be 4.54 billion years old. Are the various myths pieces of the same puzzle? Are they compatible in some broad sense?  

Length of a Day 

Related post: Length of a Day

A day is a period of time which has a variable length. The arabic word for day is  يَوْمٍ .  On Earth, a day is approximately 24 hours which is the approximate time the earth completes one rotation on its axis. A day on Venus is also the time it takes to complete one rotation on its axis, however the speed of rotation is so slow that a Venusian day is longer than a Venusian year. 

Verses of the Quran also state that the length of a day is variable. Consider the following verses: 

[Al-Qur’an 32: 5, Translator: Shakir] He regulates the affair from the heaven to the earth; then shall it ascend to Him in a day the measure of which is a thousand years of what you count

[Al-Qur’an 70:4 Translator: Shakir] To Him ascend the angels and the Spirit in a day the measure of which is fifty thousand years

Creation of Earth   

[Al-Qur’an Chapter 41:9-10, Translator: Sahih International] Say, "Do you indeed disbelieve in He who created the earth in two days and attribute to Him equals? That is the Lord of the worlds.” And He placed on the earth firmly set mountains over its surface, and He blessed it and determined therein its [creatures'] sustenance in four days without distinction - for [the information] of those who ask. 

Joining of Heaven & Earth 

[Al-Qur’an Chapter 41:11, Translator: Sahih International] Then He directed Himself to the heaven while it was smoke and said to it and to the earth, "Come [into being], willingly or by compulsion." They said, "We have come willingly.” 

[Al-Qur’an Chapter 21:30, Translator: Sahih International] Have those who disbelieved not considered that the heavens and the earth were a joined entity, and We separated them and made from water every living thing? Then will they not believe?

Creation of Seven Heavens  

[Al-Qur’an Chapter 41:12, Translator: Sahih International]  And He completed them as seven heavens within two days and inspired in each heaven its command. And We adorned the nearest heaven with lamps and as protection. That is the determination of the Exalted in Might, the Knowing.

[Al-Qur’an Chapter 2:29, Translator: Sahih International] It is He who created for you all of that which is on the earth. Then He directed Himself to the heaven, [His being above all creation], and made them seven heavens, and He is Knowing of all things. 

Fabric of Space-Time  



وَالسَّمَاءِ ذَاتِ الْحُبُكِ

[Al-Qur’an Chapter 51:7, Translator: Sahih International] By the heaven containing pathways, 

The word ‘hubuka’ is generally translated as pathways, as in the translation above. However, the word also means woven fabric, and seems aptly employed in this verse to convey the idea of the ‘fabric of space-time. Some translators have used the meaning of fabric in their translations, such as: 

[Al-Qur’an Chapter 51:7, Translator: Muhammad Mahmoud Ghali] And (by) the heaven comprising interwoven tracks
[Al-Qur’an Chapter 51:7, Translator: Talal A. Itani (new translation)] By the sky that is woven.
[Al-Qur’an Chapter 51:7, Translator: [The Monotheist Group] (2013 Edition)] By the heaven that is woven  

Different Physical Laws in Each Universe  

[Al-Qur’an Chapter 41:12, Translator: Sahih International] And He completed them as seven heavens within two days and inspired in each heaven its command. And We adorned the nearest heaven with lamps and as protection. That is the determination of the Exalted in Might, the Knowing. 

Expansion of the Universe 

[Al-Qur’an Chapter 51:47, Translator: Sahih International]  And the heaven We constructed with strength, and indeed, We are [its] expander. 

Seven Heavens  in Layers

[Al-Qur’an Chapter 67:3-4, Translator: Sahih International] [And] who created seven heavens in layers. You do not see in the creation of the Most Merciful any inconsistency. So return [your] vision [to the sky]; do you see any breaks? Then return [your] vision twice again. [Your] vision will return to you humbled while it is fatigued. 

[Al-Qur’an Chapter 71:15, Translator: Sahih International] Do you not consider how Allah has created seven heavens in layers
  


[Al-Qur’an Chapter 55:33, Translator: Muhammad Sarwar] Jinn and mankind, if you can penetrate the diameters of the heavens and the earth, do so, but you cannot do so without power and authority.

[Al-Qur’an Chapter 16:50, Translator: Sahih International] They fear their Lord above them, and they do what they are commanded. 

Seven Earths 

Does each Heaven have an Earth? Consider verse 12 of chapter 65:

اللَّهُ الَّذِي خَلَقَ سَبْعَ سَمَاوَاتٍ وَمِنَ الْأَرْضِ مِثْلَهُنَّ يَتَنَزَّلُ الْأَمْرُ بَيْنَهُنَّ لِتَعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ قَدْ أَحَاطَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عِلْمًا

Sahih International: It is Allah who has created seven heavens and of the earth, the like of them. [His] command descends among them so you may know that Allah is over all things competent and that Allah has encompassed all things in knowledge.

Many Worlds  

The Quran starts with the statement: 

الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ

[Al-Qur’an Chapter 1:2, Translator: Pickthall] Praise be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds 

The word الْعَالَمِينَ  occurs 73 times in the Qur’an.  

Stage to Stage

When the first heaven is rent asunder, will we travel to another plane? 
Chapter 84 starts with the verse: 
إِذَا السَّمَاءُ انشَقَّتْ
[Al-Qur’an Chapter 84:1, Translator: Pickthall] When the heaven is split asunder

Now consider the following verse [Al-Qur’an 84:19]:
لَتَرْكَبُنَّ طَبَقًا عَن طَبَقٍ 

Sahih International: [That] you will surely experience state after state.
Pickthall: That ye shall journey on from plane to plane.
Yusuf Ali: Ye shall surely travel from stage to stage.
Shakir: That you shall most certainly enter one state after another.
Muhammad Sarwar: that you will certainly pass through one stage after another.
Mohsin Khan: You shall certainly travel from stage to stage (in this life and in the Hereafter).
Arberry: you shall surely ride stage after stage.

[Al-Qur’an 70:3-4 Translator: Shakir] From Allah, the Lord of the ways of Ascent. To Him ascend the angels and the Spirit in a day the measure of which is fifty thousand years. 

Cycles of Creation

[Al-Qur’an Chapter 21:104, Translator: Sahih International] The Day when We will fold the heaven like the folding of a [written] sheet for the records. As We began the first creation, We will repeat it. [That is] a promise binding upon Us. Indeed, We will do it.

[Al-Qur’an Chapter 11:107-108, Translator: Sahih International] [They will be] abiding therein as long as the heavens and the earth endure, except what your Lord should will. Indeed, your Lord is an effecter of what He intends. And as for those who were [destined to be] prosperous, they will be in Paradise, abiding therein as long as the heavens and the earth endure, except what your Lord should will - a bestowal uninterrupted.  

Primary and Secondary Phases of Creation   

It appears that the primary phase of creation occured in an earlier aeon and the secondary one in this aeon: 

[Al-Qur’an Chapter 41:9-12, Translator: Sahih International] Say, "Do you indeed disbelieve in He who created the earth in two days and attribute to Him equals? That is the Lord of the worlds.” And He placed on the earth firmly set mountains over its surface, and He blessed it and determined therein its [creatures'] sustenance in four days without distinction - for [the information] of those who ask. Then He directed Himself to the heaven while it was smoke and said to it and to the earth, "Come [into being], willingly or by compulsion." They said, "We have come willingly.” And He completed them as seven heavens within two days and inspired in each heaven its command. And We adorned the nearest heaven with lamps and as protection. That is the determination of the Exalted in Might, the Knowing. 

[Al-Qur’an Chapter 79:27-33, Translator: Shakir] Are you the harder to create or the heaven? He made it. He raised high its height, then put it into a right good state. And He made dark its night and brought out its light. And the earth, He expanded it after thatHe brought forth from it its water and its pasturage. And the mountains, He made them firm, A provision for you and for your cattle. 

Purpose of Creation

[Al-Qur’an Chapter 11:7, Translator: Sahih International] And it is He who created the heavens and the earth in six days - and His Throne had been upon water - that He might test you as to which of you is best in deed. But if you say, "Indeed, you are resurrected after death," those who disbelieve will surely say, "This is not but obvious magic.” 

Creation of Human

[Al-Qur’an Chapter 95:4-5, Translator: Sahih International] We have certainly created man in the best of stature; Then We return him to the lowest of the low

Considering the Earth is in the centre of the seven concentric heavens, then we humans are indeed, literally, in the lowest of the low. 

Another Creation  

Destruction & Re-creation of the Heaven [singular]:  
[Al-Qur’an Chapter 21:104, Translator: Sahih International] The Day when We will fold the heaven like the folding of a [written] sheet for the records. As We began the first creation, We will repeat it. [That is] a promise binding upon Us. Indeed, We will do it.

Destruction & Re-creation of the Heavens [plural]:
[Al-Qur’an Chapter 39:67, Translator: Sahih International] They have not appraised Allah with true appraisal, while the earth entirely will be [within] His grip on the Day of Resurrection, and the heavens will be folded in His right hand. Exalted is He and high above what they associate with Him.

[Al-Qur’an Chapter 14:48, Translator: Sahih International] [It will be] on the Day the earth will be replaced by another earth, and the heavens [as well], and all creatures will come out before Allah , the One, the Prevailing.  

Edge of the Heaven   

[Al-Qur’an 19:68-72, translator: Sahih International] So by your Lord, We will surely gather them and the devils; then We will bring them to be present around Hell upon their knees. Then We will surely extract from every sect those of them who were worst against the Most Merciful in insolence. Then, surely it is We who are most knowing of those most worthy of burning therein. And there is none of you except he will come to it. This is upon your Lord an inevitability decreed. Then We will save those who feared Allah and leave the wrongdoers within it, on their knees. 

[Al-Qur’an 15:41-44, translator: Sahih International] [Allah] said, "This is a path [of return] to Me [that is] straight. Indeed, My servants - no authority will you have over them, except those who follow you of the deviators. And indeed, Hell is the promised place for them all. It has seven gates; for every gate is of them a portion designated.”  

Wormhole [Safe Passage]  

[Al-Qur’an 57:12-13, translator: Sahih International] On the Day you see the believing men and believing women, their light proceeding before them and on their right, [it will be said], "Your good tidings today are [of] gardens beneath which rivers flow, wherein you will abide eternally." That is what is the great attainment. On the [same] Day the hypocrite men and hypocrite women will say to those who believed, "Wait for us that we may acquire some of your light." It will be said, "Go back behind you and seek light." And a wall will be placed between them with a door, its interior containing mercy, but on the outside of it is torment

[Al-Qur’an Chapter 15:14, Translator: Sahih International] And [even] if We opened to them a gate from the heaven and they continued therein to ascend, 

[Al-Qur’an 70:3 Translator: Shakir] From Allah, the Lord of the ways of Ascent. To Him ascend the angels and the Spirit in a day the measure of which is fifty thousand years. 

Size of the Garden 

The reward will vary in accordance with the quality of faith and actions of each individual, as indicated in the size of the gardens mentioned in 57:21 and 3:133, and as stated in 8:4 below. For those who believe and seek forgiveness for their sins, God will grace them with a garden as extensive as heaven [singular] and the earth, while those who also keep their duty to God, the pious, the reward will be greater: as extensive as the heavens [plural] and the earth. 

[Al-Qur’an Chapter 57:21, Translator: Shakir] Hasten to forgiveness from your Lord and to a garden the extensiveness of which is as the extensiveness of the heaven and the earth; it is prepared for those who believe in Allah and His messengers; that is the grace of Allah: He gives it to whom He pleases, and Allah is the Lord of mighty grace.

[Al-Qur’an Chapter 3:133, Translator: Shakir] And hasten to forgiveness from your Lord; and a Garden, the extensiveness of which is (as) the heavens and the earth, it is prepared for those who guard (against evil)

[Al-Qur’an Chapter 8:4, Translator: Shakir] These are the believers in truth; they shall have from their Lord exalted grades and forgiveness and an honorable sustenance.

Some Interesting Statistics from the Qur’an

The Qur’an mentions creation in several places. Following are some interesting statistics: 

Count of occurrence in Qur’an Fact stated in Qur’an Verse numbers 
7 verses mention 6 days of creation 7 heavens and earth were created in 6 days  7:54, 10:3, 11:7, 25:59, 32:4, 50:38, 57:4 
6 verses mention both heaven and heavens creation was done in 6 days 2:29, 2:164, 27:60, 31:10, 41:12, 57:4
2 verses mention both heaven and 7 heavens heaven was divided into 7 heavens in 2 days 2:29, 41:12
7 verses mention 7 heavens the heaven is divided into 7 heavens  2:29, 17:44, 23:86, 41:12, 65:12, 67:3, 71:15 
1 verse mentions 7 heavens and of earth a similar number the earth is mentioned in singular and always as a proper noun throughout the Quran  65:12
1 verse states size of garden equivalent to heaven and earth for those who believe and hasten to seek forgiveness 57:21
1 verse states size of garden equivalent to heavens and earth for those who are pious [keep their duty]  3:133


References: 

Quran: 


Science: 

Mythology: 

Thursday, October 16, 2014

Sunrise from the West

An interesting argument related in the Qur’an is that of Prophet Abraham’s conversation with the King who rejected Allah, and considered himself as capable as Allah. Prophet Abraham challenged him to make the Sun rise from the West:

أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِي حَاجَّ إِبْرَاهِيمَ فِي رَبِّهِ أَنْ آتَاهُ اللَّهُ الْمُلْكَ إِذْ قَالَ إِبْرَاهِيمُ رَبِّيَ الَّذِي يُحْيِي وَيُمِيتُ قَالَ أَنَا أُحْيِي وَأُمِيتُ ۖ قَالَ إِبْرَاهِيمُ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ يَأْتِي بِالشَّمْسِ مِنَ الْمَشْرِقِ فَأْتِ بِهَا مِنَ الْمَغْرِبِ فَبُهِتَ الَّذِي كَفَرَ ۗ وَاللَّهُ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الظَّالِمِينَ

[Al-Qur’an 2:258, Translator: Arberry] Hast thou not regarded him who disputed with Abraham, concerning his Lord, that God had given him the kingship? When Abraham said, 'My Lord is He who gives life, and makes to die,' he said, 'I give life, and make to die.' Said Abraham, 'God brings the sun from the east; so bring thou it from the west.' Then the unbeliever was confounded. God guides not the people of the evildoers. 

Can the Sun rise from the West?
The general direction of rotation of most objects in the observable Universe is counter-clockwise, including the Earth, which means that the eastern side sees the Sun before the western side. 
However, Venus is an exception. It rotates clockwise on its axis, which means that if we were standing on Venus, we would see the Sun rise on the western horizon. Planet Uranus also rotates clockwise. 
Some links: 

Signs of the Heavens 
Was Abraham aware of the retrograde rotation of some heavenly bodies? Consider the following verse: 

وَكَذَ‌ٰلِكَ نُرِي إِبْرَاهِيمَ مَلَكُوتَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَلِيَكُونَ مِنَ الْمُوقِنِينَ


[Al-Qur’an 6:75, Translator: Arberry] So We were showing Abraham the kingdom of the heavens and earth, that he might be of those having sure faith.  

Length of a Day: variable or fixed?

A day is a period of time which can be of variable length. The arabic word for day is  يَوْمٍ .  On Earth, a day is approximately 24 hours which is the approximate time the earth completes one rotation on its axis. A day on Venus is also the time it takes to complete one rotation on its axis, however the speed of rotation is so slow that a Venusian day is longer than a Venusian year. 

Verses of the Quran also state that the length of a day is variable. Consider the following verses:

اللَّهُ الَّذِي خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا فِي سِتَّةِ أَيَّامٍ ثُمَّ اسْتَوَىٰ عَلَى الْعَرْشِ ۖ مَا لَكُم مِّن دُونِهِ مِن وَلِيٍّ وَلَا شَفِيعٍ ۚ أَفَلَا تَتَذَكَّرُونَ
يُدَبِّرُ الْأَمْرَ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ إِلَى الْأَرْضِ ثُمَّ يَعْرُجُ إِلَيْهِ فِي يَوْمٍ كَانَ مِقْدَارُهُ أَلْفَ سَنَةٍ مِّمَّا تَعُدُّونَ 

[Al-Qur’an 32: 4-5, Translator: Shakir] Allah is He Who created the heavens and the earth and what is between them in six periods, and He mounted the throne (of authority); you have not besides Him any guardian or any intercessor, will you not then mind? He regulates the affair from the heaven to the earth; then shall it ascend to Him in a day the measure of which is a thousand years of what you count. 

مِّنَ اللَّهِ ذِي الْمَعَارِجِ
تَعْرُجُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ وَالرُّوحُ إِلَيْهِ فِي يَوْمٍ كَانَ مِقْدَارُهُ خَمْسِينَ أَلْفَ سَنَةٍ

[Al-Qur’an 70:3-4 Translator: Shakir] From Allah, the Lord of the ways of Ascent. To Him ascend the angels and the Spirit in a day the measure of which is fifty thousand years



References: 

Saturday, October 11, 2014

When the Seas Boil

Related post:

Among the catastrophic events that will occur when the world is about to end is the mention of the heating of the seas. Latest measurements and studies indicate that the temperature of the seas is indeed rising. Global warming experts have been warning of a drastic climate change, and some of the markers are beginning to manifest. 

Qur’an 
In Chapter 81, a list of events are mentioned. Verse 6 states that: 
وَإِذَا الْبِحَارُ سُجِّرَتْ
Sahih International: And when the seas are filled with flame

Pickthall: And when the seas rise,

Yusuf Ali: When the oceans boil over with a swell;

Shakir: And when the seas are set on fire,

Muhammad Sarwar: the oceans are brought to a boil,

Mohsin Khan: And when the seas shall become as blazing Fire or shall overflow;

Arberry: when the seas shall be set boiling,


Shades of Meaning in the Lexicon 
According to Lane’s Lexicon, the root s-j-r basically means filled, but as it adds in the discussion, there is no way to understand this word unless it means filled with fire; or it means when the seas shall overflow; or shall meet together and become one sea… 

Global Warming 
Global warming is the gradual rise in temperature of the earth’s oceans and atmosphere over the years which can lead to potential climate change. Global warming markers are increasingly making their presence felt, such as: 
  • Accelerating sea level rise and increased coastal flooding
  • Longer and more damaging wildfire seasons
  • More frequent and intense heat waves
  • Costly and growing health impacts
  • An increase in extreme weather events 
  • Heavier precipitation and flooding 
  • More severe droughts in some areas 
  • Changing seasons
  • Melting ice 
  • Destruction of coral reefs 
  • Plant and animal range shifts 
‘Frozen water is found in many different places on Earth. Snow blankets the ground at mid and high latitudes during winter. Sea ice and icebergs float in the chilly waters of polar oceans. Ice shelves fringe lands in Earth’s polar regions. Glaciers and larger ice sheets move slowly over land in polar regions. Glaciers are also found on high mountaintops around the world. The soils of polar regions, called permafrost, are filled with frozen water. Together, these different types of frozen water are known as the Earth’s cryosphere. Approximately three-quarters of the world’s fresh water is frozen in the cryosphere. Some parts of the cryosphere, such as snow and the ice on ponds and lakes in mid-latitude locations, are only around during winter months. Other parts of the cryosphere, such as glaciers and ice sheets, stay frozen year-round and, in fact, can stay that way for tens of thousands or even hundreds of thousands of years. Some of the ice in the ice sheet that covers most of the continent of Antarctica has been there for nearly a million years.’

Glacial Melt 
North Pole
There has been a dramatic decline in the sea-ice at the Arctic over the years. The following image of ESA demonstrates the  gravity of the situation: 
Copyright UCL/ESA

Arctic permafrost is melting, and massive methane releases have been recorded. Methane is a greenhouse gas which has a much higher capacity to retain heat as compared to carbon dioxide.  Combined with loss of albedo and other factors, it has the potential to accelerate global warming to catastrophic levels within years. According to the Arctic News, ‘Continued warming in the Arctic threatens to trigger methane releases large enough to terminate civilization as we know it and to cause widespread and massive death and extinction.’ 
The danger is illustrated in this diagram:


South Pole
Satellite measurements reveal an alarming decrease in antarctic glaciers: ‘They have found that the loss of ice from West Antarctica between 2009 and 2012 caused a dip in the gravity field over the region… And, between 2011 and 2014, Antarctica as a whole has been shrinking in volume by 125 cubic kilometres a year.’  


Sea Temperature 
According to another ESA report titled Is Global Warming Hiding Underwater: ‘Satellite observations of global sea-surface temperature show that a 30-year upward trend has slowed down within the last 15 years. Climate scientists say this is not the end of global warming, but the result of a rearrangement in the energy flow of the climate system and, in particular, how the ocean stores heat…  Scientists have speculated that one of the causes of this ‘plateau’ in sea-surface temperature could be a change in the exchange of ocean water between warm, surface waters and cold, deep waters below 700 m – as if the warming is ‘hiding’ underwater. Temperature measurements at this depth cover a relatively short period.But the warm water won’t hide below the surface forever: scientists believe that it may re-emerge later or affect other climate indicators, such as sea level or ocean circulation.’  


Warming of the waters off both the east and west coast of U.S. have been reported in the recent years: 
Accelerated warming of the continental shelf off northeast coast of the U.S. has been reported on June 15, 2015 in phys.org ‘A new study … shows that water temperatures in this continental shelf region have been trending upward, with unprecedented warming occurring over the last 13 years. 
"The warming rate since 2002 is 15 times faster than from the previous 100 years,” … ’  
Regarding the west coast of the U.S., Warmer Pacific Ocean could release millions of tons of seafloor methane was reported on December 9, 2014 in the same journal. ‘Researchers found that water off the coast of Washington is gradually warming at a depth of 500 meters, about a third of a mile down. That is the same depth where methane transforms from a solid to a gas. The research suggests that ocean warming could be triggering the release of a powerful greenhouse gas.

… This paper estimates that from 1970 to 2013, some 4 million metric tons of methane has been released from hydrate decomposition off Washington. … and 500 times the rate at which methane is naturally released from the seafloor.’


References














Last updated on: July 23, 2015



Tuesday, October 7, 2014

Origins of Water

Earth is a strange planet, unique in many ways. There is abundance of water on Earth, and all life forms are not only dependent on it, but are largely comprised of it. Tracing the theories of the formation of Sun and the Solar System, and studying the abundance of water and its type on Earth, scientists are now theorising that water on Earth predates the formation of the Solar System, has celestial origins and must have been delivered to Earth.  

Qur’an 

The Qur’an(21:30) clearly states that all living things have been created from water. Also, in several places in the Quran, it informs us that water has been sent to Earth.  

Concordance in the Quran 

The arabic word for water: مَاءً has been used in 63 verses of the Qur’an. The arabic word for sky/heaven: السَّمَاءِ occurs in 310 verses of the Qur’an. Verses 21-22 of Chapter 2 read: 

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اعْبُدُوا رَبَّكُمُ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُمْ وَالَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ
الَّذِي جَعَلَ لَكُمُ الْأَرْضَ فِرَاشًا وَالسَّمَاءَ بِنَاءً وَأَنزَلَ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مَاءً فَأَخْرَجَ بِهِ مِنَ الثَّمَرَاتِ رِزْقًا لَّكُمْ ۖ فَلَا تَجْعَلُوا لِلَّهِ أَندَادًا وَأَنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ

[Al-Qur’an 2:21-22, Translator: Muhammad Sarwar] People, worship your Lord who created you and those who lived before you, so that you may become pious. Worship God who has rendered the earth as a floor for you and the sky as a dome for you and has sent water down from the sky to produce fruits for your sustenance. Do not knowingly set up anything as an equal to God. 

Verses 2:164, 6:99, 8:11, 12:24, 13:17, 14:32, 15:22, 16:10, 16:65, 18:45, 20:53, 22:63, 23:18, 25:48, 27:60, 30:24, 31:10, 35:27, 39:21, 43:11 and 50:9 also state that water is sent from the sky.  

Deuterium and Heavy Water 


Ratio of Heavy Water to Normal Water 

On Earth, deuterated water, HDO, occurs naturally in regular water at a proportion of about 1 molecule in 3200. This means that 1 in 6400 hydrogen atoms is deuterium, which is 1 part in 3200 by weight (hydrogen weight).’ 

According to recent studies, the ratio of deuterium in water molecules in comet Hartley 2, from the Jupiter family Cloud [Kuiper Belt], is similar to that found on Earth, while its different in other bodies of the solar system. 

Deuterium to Hydrogen ratio in the Solar System: 

Celestial Origins of Water in the Solar System 

According to a latest study, to Identify the source of Earth’s water, the deuterium-to-hydrogen enrichments across the solar system cannot be explained through the typical solar system formation processes, and hence cannot be the sole source of the solar system’s water. Therefore, water must have a more ancient, celestial origin. 
[Few reports based on the original article in journal Science:  

Delivery of Water to a Planet in η Corvi System

According to another study, there is evidence of delivery of water to another planet in another solar system: ‘The best model for what is going on in the η Corvi (F2V) system is that… As part of this process, one or more of the excited KBOs was scattered onto an orbit that sent it into the inner system, where it collided with a planetary-class body at ~3 AU, releasing a large amount of thermally unprocessed, primitive ice and carbon-rich dustThis system is likely a good analogue for the LHB processes that occurred in the early Solar System at 0.6 – 0.8 Gyr after the formation of the CAIs, and is thus worthy of further detailed study in order to understand the nature of our LHB.’     


Astronomers Find Largest, Most Distant Reservoir of Water

NASA reports: Two teams of astronomers have discovered the largest and farthest reservoir of water ever detected in the universe. The water, equivalent to 140 trillion times all the water in the world's ocean, surrounds a huge, feeding black hole, called a quasar, more than 12 billion light-years away.

"The environment around this quasar is very unique in that it's producing this huge mass of water," said Matt Bradford, a scientist at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif. "It's another demonstration that water is pervasive throughout the universe, even at the very earliest times."

The Water Vapor Spectrum of APM 08279+5255: X-RAY Heating and Infrared Pumping over Hundreds of Parsecs 
http://arxiv.org/pdf/1106.4301v2.pdf 



  Last updated on: November 6, 2015